This paper presents the method of the optical analysis of thin films with defects. The attention is devoted to the defects consisting in boundary roughness. This method is based on interpreting the spectral dependences of the diffuse reflectance of light [1-5]. Thin films are used in the optical and military industries and in military applications, for example for the creation of anti-reflective layers or laser mirrors . The numerical analysis confirms the fundamental influence of the parameters of the defects of thin films on the diffuse reflectance.
The most notable machines that currently have the impact of eliminating humans from direct contact with the enemy are various types of remotely controlled or autonomous drones. They wreak havoc and fear in the enemy camp, significantly affecting the outcome of current conflicts. The fact of increasing the advantage in the attack causes the need for adequate defense or rescue measures. Thus, the use of remote-controlled drones for rescue/medical purposes seems a natural or even necessary path for the development of military technology. The described drone is intended to be unmanned, designed to transport only one injured person to be evacuated from an area of intense combat with the usage of an onboard robot. It is intended that the drone will be electrically powered which will reduce the possibility of detection due to acoustic and heat signature.
The protection of cultural heritage is an important element of a country’s cultural policy. The article describes the nature of threats posed by armed conflicts to cultural heritage and the destruction of Ukrainian cultural property by Russian aggression in 2022. The article aims at discussion of the consequences of Russia’s deliberate destruction of Ukrainian cultural heritage and offers an interdisciplinary insight into protection of cultural heritage during the contemporary armed conflict. These initial observations from Russian aggression against Ukraine serve as a starting point for a discussion on challenges related to the protection of cultural heritage during a potential armed conflict in Central and Eastern Europe. Drawing on practical observations from Ukraine, the article calls for improvements to the protection of cultural heritage in Poland.
The article describes development and technical modernization of the Polish Armed Forces after 2014. It explores the linkage between development and modernization efforts and evolving military threat posed by Russia. Discussion on evolution of military threat posed by Russia constitutes a starting point for further analyses. Then, a comparative analysis of development and technical modernization plans adopted for Polish Armed Forces after 2014 and tangible results of modernization efforts undertaken during this period is presented. The article concludes with predictions on sustainability of development and modernization of the Polish Armed Forces.
he possibility of creation of nanocoatings with hydrophobic or oleo phobic properties on textiles materials designated for protective suits with plasma-chemical procedures with the employment pf atmospheric plasma without vacuum has been verified. On four samples of selected textile materials without any additional modification (Ba, PES+Ba, PES+Ba+Nomex, Ba+Nomex) has been at the Masaryk´s University (MU) in Brno applied with a plasma nozzle with ten different ways nanocoatings based on siloxane (HMDSO, OMCTS) and nanoglass. Prepared samples have been assessed at the MU in Brno even from the behaviour against freely lying drops of the sulphur mustard point of view. At the Military Technical Institute of Protection (VTUO) some selected samples have been subsequently evaluated even from the behaviour of freely lying drops of sulphur mustard. Supposed behaviour of the Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) of the VX type, sulphur mustard and Soman have been simulated within selected samples with observation of freely lying drops of the olive oil, nitrobenzene, and propanol with similar values of the surface tension as above-mentioned CWA. Founded values of contact angles have been compared with contacts values of contacts angles founded in the scope of two developed materials of the coating textiles for modernized filtration protective garment with classical hydrophobic or oleo phobic modification which have been provided with the company of B.O.I.S. – Filtry, Ltd. Within all samples the change of contact angles in time and also the homogeneity of the modification have been considered. The stability and mechanical sustainability of applied sets against washing has not been evaluated. It has been proved that with the help of plasma-chemical modification is possible to prepare nanocoatings even with ultra-hydrophobic (the contact angle for water is bigger than 150 °) and super oleo phobic (the contact angle for water is bigger than 136 °) properties on suitable textile materials. The best results, so called the effect of a lotus flower, have been reached mainly within two samples of textile materials contented a part of nomex fibes.
The pandemic situation associated with the occurrence of COVID-19 has necessitated the initiation or renewal of research activities aimed at the possibility of using materials that will have very good post-accident properties. One of the materials that have been developed, tested and applied in the past has been materials based on the spherical fullerene C 60 molecule. A microstructure using REM and SEM and sorptive properties of fullerene C 60 for gases of toluene with the employment of a QCM detector has been studied. Obtained micrographs are discussed in relation to a possible spatial arrangement at the molecular level. The envisaged solution aims to develop a sensor that, due to its surface properties, would be useful for the detection of gas and liquid phases of chemical warfare agents and industrial chemicals. It is envisaged that the surface layer consisting of fullerene C 60 will be universally applicable, reusable and low cost and low maintenance.
Laser shock wave treatment is a newest effective tool for modifying material properties. Irradiation of materials with a laser in the Q-switched mode in different mediums can change the relief and surface structure of the irradiated material. Images of the surfaces of metallic materials under different irradiation conditions were obtained with the help of a scanning electron microscope. It is shown that the energy of the laser pulse and the transparent condensed medium through which the processing is carried out play an important role on the surface structuring. The possible causes of periodic relief are explained.
The aim of the research was to assess the possibility of using various types of civil aircraft for terrorist attacks. The main methods were: analysis and synthesis, analogy, generalization, comparison and inference. The research was based on the analysis of the literature as well as normative and doctrinal documents. Scientific observation where used, which focused on practical examples and attempts to use civil aircraft by terrorists to attack civilian objects from 2001 to 2020. Considering the large diversity of each types of aircraft, a criterion analysis was used to evaluate them in terms of their suitability for terrorist attacks. As a result of the conducted analytical research, three groups of aircraft were selected, which are particularly predisposed as potential tools of terrorist attacks on civilian objects. The first group consists of large-size structures such as passenger and transport planes, the use of which in attacks may cause the greatest losses, both material and human. The next group consists of small-sized light and very light airplanes, microlight, unmanned aerial vehicles and radio-controlled models. This type of aircraft and flying machines are in a period of dynamic development and, at the same time, of great interest on the part of terrorist groups. It was also found that in the case of attacks using explosives or taking into account aviation fuel (which, as a result of an aircraft collision with an object, usually explodes), greater possibilities give large aircraft, such as passenger and transport aircrafts.
This study focuses on the evaluation of the moderating role of psychological resilience in intrinsic motivation. These causal relationships were evaluated in terms of self-efficacy and perceived military competence, taking into account the effects of intrinsic motivation and psychological resilience. Five hypotheses were developed on the effects of the theoretically supported variable relations. The study data set was collected from the Active Lithuanian Army Reserve. In this study, 354 soldiers were investigated using the Brief Resilience Scale (BRE), the Self-Efficacy Scale (EFF), the Intrinsic Motivation Scale (INM) and the Perceived Military Competence Scale (PMC). The results of the analysis conducted showed that between self-efficacy and the growth of perceived military competence is a positive relationship both for soldiers with high and low points of intrinsic motivation. In addition, it can be concluded that reservists with higher internal motivation have more confidence in their abilities to act and achieve the set goals, which can have a significant impact on reservists' readiness to improve their military competence. Similarly, self-efficacy appears to be vital in improving military competences among soldiers with less intrinsic motivation. Moreover, soldiers with higher intrinsic motivation and higher psychological resilience probably increase their military competence due to the pleasure they derive from participating in military exercises.
This paper is partly devoted to defining economic warfare and its position in the system of international relations. The role of economic warfare in shaping internal and external policies of s country is described in selected examples using the historical-logical method. The article provides a typology of the elements of trade warfare. Based on the analysis of selected determinants, the latest facts of trade warfare after the year 2015 are analysed. The treatise concludes: a trade war in one sector of the economy may spread into other sectors, whereas economic warfare is a priori waged against an economy.