This paper examines the impact of a context indicator of integrated order, such as ways of organising one’s life in old age, on social security issues. In the framework of ageing society it concerns the problems of socio-demographic determinants of life choices in old age, which are of the key importance for the sense of social security. Authors explore the results of the research on the representative sample of 1006 adult Poles, which has been carried out using the quantitative method - the diagnostic survey based on a questionnaire survey technique- in 2020. The preferred ways of organising one’s life in old age were measured in five areas on the basis of the proprietary six-point nominal scale. The applied methodology helped to explore the preferences of the adult Poles regarding the forms of one’s life organisation in old age and to study the determinants of the choices made. The analysis used contingency coefficients - V- Cramer and Phi - to determine the strength of the relationship between the nominal variables assigned to the social security areas under study. The Chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between the studied areas of social security and age groups. The sociological approach in measuring the selected context indicator of integrated order in the sustainable development paradigm has been strongly emphasised by authors. The findings suggest that ways of organising one’s life in old age are key factors for the sustainability of social security in ageing societies.
The objective of this article is to describe the system of defence education for Polish youth after 1989 and its transformations. The article indicates that in Polish primary and secondary schools today, the subject of security education is taught, and in some high schools – especially in Certified Military Uniformed Classes – the subject of military education is taught as well. Among students, however, the defence curriculum is taught mainly as part of extra-curricular activities, mainly within the Academic Legion and Passport Programme. On the basis of the research strengthening military potential is supported by the defence education of young people. The exploration underlined that achieving the defence objectives outlined by the programmes of the Ministry of National Defence in agreement with the Ministry of National Education. The study used the diagnostic survey research method and the techniques of content analysis, a questionnaire, interviews, and observations. The article conluds recommendations for security education curriculum.
The aim of the comparative analysis presented here was in a way to show a catalogue of ways of handling cases in which the complainant is incarcerated. Additionally the aim of this study is an attempt at explicating the current legal status in Poland in terms of the institution of lodging complaints by detainees and its functioning, and to compile a comparative analysis in the same subject area. In addition, the aim of the study is an attempt to present de lege lata conclusions and de lege ferenda postulates in the context of the matter in question. It should be emphasized that the institution of a complaint is notoriously used by persons deprived of their liberty, which is clearly visible in the statistical analysis presented in the article. For this reason, it seems justified to undertake legislative work in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and the Central Management of the Academy of Justice. This study uses a triangulation of the following research methods: descriptive research method, theoretical and legal method, comparative method with the elements of comparative law, and statistical method. The legal status adopted in the paper as on 30 October 2020.
The aim of the paper is an attempt to show that the Thomistic theory of person and the original idea of personal relations built on it become the basis for decisions in the field of pedagogy in the view of consistent Thomism. Mieczysław Gogacz, the founder of this version of Thomism, treating pedagogy as a philosophical science, points to the necessary dependence of upbringing and education on theses resulting from human philosophy, ethics and social security. A properly formulated theory of person is the basis for pedagogy in the current of realist philosophy. This version of Thomism continually emphasises the close dependence of all subsequent assertions on the recognition of existence as an act of individual being which is the basis of all further actualities and manifestations of being. In the case of the human being, the personal act of existence and its manifestations subject the personal relations that result from the coherence of the approaches to metaphysics, philosophy of man and, consequently, ethics. In consistent Thomism, it is the concept of the person and personal relations that define pedagogy.
This paper outlines various issues concerning education of Prison Guard officers in the security system of the Second Polish Republic. The subsequent parts of the paper highlight a short outline of the history of the Polish prison system in the years 1918-1939, the functioning of the Prison Guard in the Second Polish Republic, as well as training methods employed by the organisation. The issues highlighted in the paper address key aspects concerning Prison Guard education. The first part of the article offers a broader outline of the issue at hand, showcasing some of the characteristic elements of the Polish penitentiary system in the years 1918-1939, in particular in the 1920s, which were particularly difficult for the reborn Polish state, as the Second Polish Republic had to face various challenges concerning its external and internal security. This, of course, had its impact on the condition of the Polish prison system, as the newlyestablished penitentiary system faced various problems and issues. The terrible shape of the buildings, poorly trained staff and dire conditions faced by prisoners serving their sentences led the state authorities to undertake the painstaking task of creating an efficient penitentiary system from scratch. From the point of view of the entire interwar period, this task can be deemed successful, as the state of prisons in the 1920s was significantly worse compared to the 1930s. The training and education of Prison Guard officers was an integral and inseparable part of the development of the Polish penitentiary system. This paper outlines the educational process and subsequent forms of schools educating and training future prison guards. What is more, it also highlights their main objectives, the subjects taught and the figures of lecturers responsible for teaching individual subjects, concluded with a summary.
This paper presents the model of “reflective practice” according to D. Schön’s conception, with special regard to the phenomenon of simultaneous thinking in action, which was applied in the implementation of a pilot postgraduate study program for the future managing staff of penitentiary units. The author describes theoretical sources of inspiration for the training of officers to the profile of professional competence defined as the “Reflective Practitioner”. The presented approaches to education and training are based on the trend of reflective practice methodology that could be quickly implemented in daily professional practice of experienced and newly trained prison service officers.
This article presents the rights of Prison Service officers regarding the preventive use of direct coercive measures. The concepts of the use and application of direct coercive measures were defined in relation to the Prison Service. The purposes of preventive use are presented with examples. The catalogue and basic principles of the use of direct coercive measures, which can be applied as preventive measures in the Polish Prison Service, are described. The above issues were adapted to the statutory protective tasks of this formation.
The article presents an in-depth identification of the polemological aspects of research on the subject of wars and armed conflicts of the 21st century. Moreover, it discusses the evolution, scale and nature of contemporary, as well as future wars and armed conflicts. The article refers to the essence, properties and characteristics of ‘new wars’ and the possibility of studying them by using appropriate instruments. Based on the conducted research, an attempt is made at forecasting wars and armed conflicts of the future. The article also highlights the activities and functioning of contemporary research institutes and facilities engaged in the analysis of war and armed conflicts, and focuses on the legitimacy and needs of implementing the polemological approach to the research of the presented subject in the present global-informational security conditions.
Victimization is the process of assuming the role of a victim. Even early criminological theories indicated how important an individual’s personality can be in this process. In contemporary theories of the psychopathology, the causes of vulnerability to becoming a victim lie in maladaptive schemas, i.e. dysfunctional patterns of thinking, behaviour and experiencing emotions. Research indicates that, in particular, the area of disconnection / rejection that develops in early childhood in relationships with parents and / or peers promotes susceptibility to victimization. The article describes the cases of three patients who were diagnosed with the indicated patterns in the area of disconnection / rejection, as a result of experiencing direct violence in their childhood. Their examples show how the tendency to become a victim continues in adulthood. It seems important to recognize maladaptive schemas, also in the context of the victimization process. Proper work with the victims of crime can be the basis for environmental change, which will be important both for avoiding victimisation in the future, but also for stabilizing the negative behaviour of the perpetrators themselves.
The paper considers the feeling of security among inmates in Polish prisons and detention facilities. The adopted methods include the diagnostic survey method, and statistical and comparative analysis method, including factor analysis. The research conducted in five randomly selected Polish prisons and detention facilities included a sample of 392 inmates. Factors significant for the physical and social prison space were analysed. No correlation was found between the sense of security of persons deprived of their liberty and the time spent in a residential cell and the duration of stay and number of transfers in the prison/detention facility. However, it was noted that with the age increase, the “anxiety” of first-time inmates who did not participate in the subculture of prison cryptolect decreased (N=72, Spearman’s rho correlation = -0.247, p < 0.05) and the “fear of inmates’ threatening behaviour” among the prisoners who served a prison sentence again, and who did not participate in the subculture of prison cryptolect, was reduced (N=262, Spearman’s rho correlation = -0.221, p < 0.01). It was also found that the greater the number of inmates in a residential cell, the lower the “fear of inmates’ threatening behaviour” (N=48, Kendall’s tau-b correlation =-0.293, p < 0.01) among the participants in the subculture of prison cryptolect who serve a prison sentence again.