This article is an attempt to deepen the knowledge about the relationships between Machiavellianism and the search for and experience of a sense of the meaning in life in penitentiary recidivists. The study emphasises the role of this knowledge in penitentiary interactions. The significance of Machiavellianism for penitentiary studies is conditioned by the fact that this construct captures the essence of the attitudes and beliefs illustrating the relation of individuals to the social world. Moreover, the significance of the problem of searching for and experiencing the meaning in life in relation to the area of penitentiary social rehabilitation is conditioned by the issue of linking these constructs with the aspect of positive change and achieving general adaptation. The study indicates a number of theoretical and empirical premises justifying the occurrence of direct relationships between the area of Machiavellianism and the sphere of existential experiences. The research objective was formulated based these assumptions and concerned the determination of the relationship between Machiavellianism and the meaning of life in repeatedly incarcerated convicts. A group of 59 penitentiary recidivists (aged 27 to 68; M = 39.75, SD = 8.84) was tested using the Machiavellian scale (Mach IV) and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), which enabled the measurement of the search for and presence of meaning in life. The relationships between the variables were determined by correlation. The analyses showed the existence of numerous significant relationships between the Machiavellian syndrome and the search for and presence of meaning in life. A greater overall level of Machiavellianism was associated with a lower intensity of the search for and the presence of meaning in life. The obtained results have implications for penitentiary practice with regards to influencing convicted recidivists. In light of the acquired results, it is justified to include educational and psycho-corrective elements that undermine Machiavellian beliefs, which is a factor supporting the orientation towards the search for meaning in life and has potential to create meaning.
The aim of the research was to analyse letters written by prisoners so as to discover what the penitentiary space means to them. The practical goal was to show the usefulness of employing epistolography in assessing the quality of social and living conditions and to evaluate the quality of penitentiary practices in the context of prisoners’ needs, as well as to unmask the hidden re-education programme. The article is based on the results of the content analysis of 26 anonymised letters written by prisoners who for the first time serve a sentence in Polish closed regime prisons. The collected research material was subjected to a framework analysis supplemented by an emergent technique. The analysis of prison letters indicates a generally critical assessment of the quality of the practices carried out and their accuracy in relation to the prisoner’s rehabilitation needs. The letters reveal also the existence of a hidden re-education programme. The use of the epistolary corpus in the description of the penitentiary space may result in the improvement of the current penitentiary methods. A thorough analysis of prison letters indicate areas that require change or the application of specific solutions that may contribute to the rationalization of penitentiary practices.
The present article analyses the relationship between coping styles, defence mechanisms and time perspectives in subjects representing type I and II alcohol dependence according to the classification developed by Lesch. The results showed that among people belonging to type I addiction according to Lesch, a higher intensity of coping style focused on emotions is associated with a higher level of immature defence mechanisms, in particular denial and devaluation. A higher intensity of task-focused coping style in type I alcohol dependent individuals according to Lesch is accompanied by the use of mature defence mechanisms, such as humour and anticipation. In the group of people with type II alcoholism according to Lesch, focusing on past positive events is associated with an increased use of avoidant coping style, as well as its two subscales – engaging in substitute activities and seeking social contacts.
Suicide attempts and suicides occur in every social group. The intensification of suicidal phenomena is manifested in the group of people subject to imprisonment. The main categories of suicidal causes fall into the area of mental, social and biological determinants. The most common cause, according to research on the people in prison, is the deprivation of personal freedom of an individual and life problems disrupting the functioning of the family. People subject to imprisonment express various attitudes towards suicide attempts and suicides. Almost every fourth inmate shows a positive attitude towards suicidal behaviour. This group of inmates should be provided with special educational and rehabilitation care.
Security, synonymous with stability and development, in its most desirable form ensures certainty of existence, preservation of identity, freedom of affiliation, activity and functioning of individuals and communities, integrity and independence, satisfaction of basic needs, defence against their loss, prosperity and satisfaction. The interpretation adopted for the purposes of the paper refers to several elements that affect national security. It is primarily creating its security by organising society on the basis of power, giving its actions a purposeful character serving to maintain order and stability, and social order. Another element is the creation of certain states of social reality through the policy of the institution of power, which relates to the present, but inevitably leads to the future. The third element is the creation of future, desired social, political and economic phenomena and processes forming the order and the basis for further related activities, based on the policy instrument, which is the national security strategy. The last element is combining all of the previously listed in national security management. Together, these elements create an interpretation of the way of transforming and creating the state’s ability to ensure its security, a necessary condition for its existence and development. The presented study, not exhausting the subject, allows for the formulation of directions for further research, which appear to be important in creating national security.
The article presents the problem of selected aspects of social security in Poland. A source of motivation to address the issue of social security for the author was the geopolitical situation related to the increase in the number of Muslim immigrants in Europe in recent years and the current COVID-19 epidemic. Counteracting the threats of a social nature has become one of the main activities of the state in the 21st century. Social security relates to a wide range of activities carried out by the public administration, NGOs and the local communities to guarantee decent living conditions. All of this constitutes a special kind of security, the lack of which directly interferes with the foundations of a nation’s existence. The aim of the study was to present issues related to the depopulation process affecting Poland and the demographically unfavourable changes taking place in modern families. The article presents the situation prior to the emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic. Undoubtedly, the COVID-19 epidemic will significantly affect social security, also in the demographic dimension. However, the overall impact of the epidemic can only be estimated after it has completely ceased. Conclusions included in the article were formulated on the basis of the analysis of statistical data of the Central Statistical Office. In addition, the author points out the consequences resulting from a long-term demographic collapse in the country.
This article is devoted to the determinants of preparing and deploying Intervention Groups of the Prison Service. The period of several years in which the Intervention Groups of the Prison Service functioned have highlighted the need to implement solutions that enable their better preparation and more effective use in ensuring public security. In the structures of the Prison Service, the mobile strike groups have existed for a relatively short time, which consequently translates into a low level of experience of the staff that manage them. In practice, it appears that individual Regional Inspectorates of the Prison Service use different ways of managing their subordinate Intervention Groups. It is therefore necessary to introduce changes with regard to the preparation and use of all Intervention Groups of the Prison Service, which will enable their proper functioning and increase their effectiveness.
This study is the result of many years of permanent observation of the broadly understood area of security and the area of penitentiary science that is strictly connected with it. Due to the complexity of the undertaken considerations, the author of the study decided to emphasise a certain space, which is of an extremely significant value for utilitarian reasons. However, the issue in question has never been fully described in literature. The conducted research and the data obtained as a result indicate unequivocally that there is a need to examine the management of security systems in penitentiary institutions in Poland by a thorough analysis of its individual components.
Development of the civilization was always accompanied by the knowledge and technological progress. Tools made us more skilful, capable and efficient. we currently observe intensification of transformations. Complementary education is a concept which assumes that the teaching-learning process should flexibly combine traditional education and, characteristic for it, direct communication with remote education, using the Internet and other forms of media. The essence of complementary education for sustainable development is to combine these two modes of education so that the individual elements are matched to each other, complement each other and are tailored to the needs and abilities of the student and teacher. Among these media, the computer and the Internet play a key role.
The author of this article, using the heritage of history, analyzes some themes that shape Polish penitentiary policy. The issuses are connected with the religious context in the area of remedial influence on people isolated in prison. Religion, which is now present in social area, was not always accepted by people who play important roles in the state and in the prison system due to their views. Therefore, the author asks the question of a potential factor that would affect the people in order to be able to function according to social expectations. It can be considered that remedial actions on the basis of religious or secular methods may be a starting point for developing an expected repair model. It is also noticed that faith and religiosity can cause the transformation of imprisoned people, initiate it.