State security is a key issue both for the state as an entity and for its inhabitants. The economic security of the state is a particularly important component which can manifest itself on many different levels. The most important of them is financial security. This aspect of security is relevant as in modern economies money is the key value. Therefore, the financial security of the state is a component of economic security, but at the same time its key determinant. The level of financial security, which in the simplest terms is an ability to raise funds when needed, is influenced by a number of factors, the most important of which are the stability of the financial sector, the size of public debt, as well as the size and structure of the country’s foreign exchange reserves. This paper attempts to analyze individual factors that affect the condition of financial security of the state. In the next part, a structural analysis of the most important aspects of the state’s financial security was performed. The research showed that the state of Poland’s financial security could now be assessed quite highly, but the effectiveness of all the measures taken by the government and the central bank to date would be verified in the near future through the development of the situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.