The research work considers the essence and features of human capital accumulation at the company level in order to provide its economic security. The main components of intellectual capital in the format of human, organizational and customer capital have been studied. The managerial rationality of using the method of direct evaluation of intellectual capital and the method based on market capitalization has been proved. Both methods give the greatest organizational effect in providing economic security. The empirical study of using the quantitative assessment of human capital of a machine-building company has been carried out in order to strengthen its economic security.