Today the world energy market is in great transition and the demand of clean energy such as liquefied natural gas (LNG). Increase of natural gas production and supply causes drawback of onshore infrastructure and many environmental restrictions. As solution, offshore large-scale terminals especially Floating Storage and Regasification Unit (FSRU) type is becoming commercially competitive and effective alternative for the areas where onshore gas supply infrastructure is not feasible. LNG production consumes around 850 kJ/kg of LNG energy and it is just dumped into seawater or in the atmosphere despite reusing as extra energy source. In this paper, we review the cold energy economy as well as current status of LNG cold energy utilization technologies. Moreover, current and emerging cybersecurity trends after LNG cold energy implementation at FSRU are proposed and discussed to broaden the perspectives of the researchers in the community and industry experts. Finally, the review concluded with a practical recommendation of implementation of LNG Cold Energy Hub concept for future energy systems.
This article analyses military activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) from a legal point of view. It starts from the discussion of the principles of Mare Liberum and Mare Clausum, which are at the basis of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). This latter is the main instrument regulating the relations among states at sea. The tension between the two principles reflects the tension between coastal State control and maritime State that dominates the whole discussion on which this article is written. The analysis is supported by a recent example, namely the NordBalt case that clearly shows both the uncertainty of the issue and the relevance of the topic in the relations between states.
This article discusses the Ukrainian legislation on cybersecurity. The necessity of developing an efficient cybersecurity system was raised by the hybrid war conducted by Russia over the last few years, in which many critical infrastructure objects have been destroyed with serious consequences not only for the end consumers but also for the security of the state. Consequently, Ukraine has begun issuing a number of laws aiming at strengthening its cyber defense capabilities by establishing an efficient national cybersecurity system. The analysis has clearly shown that although important steps have already been taken in this direction, much still remains to be done to protect the Ukrainian critical infrastructure.