In an economy, the product of one industry is the input to another, the product of one enterprise is the input of another business and the end consumer. Countries that know how to create industry linkages to attract businesses to participate will promote business growth in both quantity and quality. In Vietnam, an efficient chain of industry links has not been formed, so it has not created favorable conditions for businesses to develop. Most of the FDI enterprises come to Vietnam to participate partly in the global value chain, but the ability of domestic enterprises to participate is still very limited. The domestic industry linkage chain has not been clearly shaped, the domestic enterprises operate sporadically, so it has not created an attractive ecosystem for small and medium enterprises to participate. To create industry linkages for domestic enterprises to participate, it is necessary to build models of production organization in industries from market research, product design, and organization of satellite businesses to the production of details and components in order to establish a distribution system to the market. Mechanisms and policies focus on supporting and providing incentives for enterprises joining industry clusters operating in all phases of investment in research, design, supply of ancillary products, and distribution.
The theoretical and methodological principles of researching the tax security of a state were substantiated with the emphasis placed on the two basic economic theories: the social choice theory and the reflectivity theory. The differential features of national tax systems under globalization conditions and their impact on the economic security of the countries that differ in the political regime, the level of economic development, geography and location were identified. There was given the assessment of the cross-sector approach, based on which multifactor effective marginal tax rates in the European Union (EU) are calculated, and of the marginal approach to taxation in general. The analytical study of tax security of the countries of Organization of economic cooperation and development (OECD) was carried out based on the assessment of the specific weight of taxes in gross domestic product, as well as the structure of taxes in the context of taxation objects: income individuals, income corporates, social security contributions, property, value added taxes, other consumption taxes. A particular attention is attached to the problems of taxation of the motion of capital and goods between the EU countries within the framework of ensuring the mutual economic benefits of the collective interests. The assessment of external and internal threats to tax security of Ukraine was performed based on the identification of the shadow economy segment, reasons for its emergence and consequences for the national economy, as well as the dynamics of the absolute and relative indicators of the budget-debt security. The recommendations on strengthening the tax security of Ukraine under the European integration conditions were given.
The essence of economic and social security as a national and supranational category has been substantiated. The influence of political, economic and social factors on the condition of national and European security has been investigated. Priorities of the economic component of security have been defined: energy security, foreign trade and innovation-investment security, social security. The dialectical interrelationships of economic and social security have been established. The trends in economic and social security have been defined.
The paper analyses possible directions for sustainable development of heat supply systems of the countries participating in the Eurasian Economic Union when creating a united electricity market. The present problem is subject to the fact that the key technology for the energy products production which forms the basis of the energy systems of the former Soviet Union countries is combined generation of electric and heat energy at the CHP. At the same time, this type of combined production is ineffective in the energy market conditions, and creation of a unified energy market can significantly affect the energy and economic efficiency of regional heat supply systems and energy security of states. In this regard, possible ways of sustainable development of regional heat supply systems in the context of integration of market pricing mechanisms are proposed and risks of various business models of commercial activity in the sphere of heat supply are identified.
On May 1st, 2004, Poland and 9 other countries became members of the European Union. The new economic and institutional conditions resulting from this event had a tremendous impact on Poland’s macroeconomic performance. Poland is the biggest beneficiary of the European Cohesion Policy in 2007-2013. This paper aims at evaluating the scope and strength of cohesion policy’s impact on the macroeconomic situation of Poland. Authors attempt to assess the economic benefits of Poland’s membership in the EU (focusing particularly on those related to impact of the cohesion policy’s implementation). Additionally, the article presents the benefits derived by the EU-15 countries from the implementation of the cohesion policy in Poland. Authors focus, inter alia, on assessing the impact of Poland’s membership in the European Union on macroeconomic situation of the country. The assessment of the said impact is based both on the analysis of selected studies of the subject and on authors’ own research based on available statistical data. Within such a context, authors discuss the results of three research projects – commissioned by the Polish Ministry of Regional Development – which attempt to evaluate the impact of the EU cohesion policy on selected macroeconomic indicators.
The aim of this article is to formulate hypotheses about the impact of the foreign direct investment (FDI) on sustainable development indicators of differently developed countries with reference to the relevant scientific literature. The impact of foreign direct investment on development and facets of sustainable development has been discussed in this article. After the review of the relevant scientific literature some consistent patterns have been identified, what, finally, led to the formulation of initial hypotheses. The countries were grouped according to the level of their development. A set of sustainable development indicators reflecting different facets of sustainability and sensitive to countries’ development level has been distinguished. The following indicators have been considered as relevant for inclusion into the set, which would be used for estimation of FDI impact on enhancing well-being in the unevenly developed countries: GDP, exports, inflation, population, life expectancy at birth, primary school pupils, infant mortality, total health expenditure per capita, total tax rate, internet users, and residential consumption of electricity). As this article is focused for the long-term perspective of FDI impact on sustainable development, it was based on three aspects of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental. Series of hypothesis have been formulated in this paper.
The share of natural gas as an efficient resource in the deficient Baltic primary energy balance is and will be significant (power generation, district heating, households, industry, etc.). Therefore, in the paper the risk of gas supply is evaluated and appropriate actions are recommended to assure reliable availability of affordable and sustainable energy in the Baltic States. Macro-region’s base (including supply and transit countries), risk and cost assessments, timely introduction of non-market measures, high cyber security level of information processing and management systems are the components of the security strategy. The extension of Incukalns UGS, interlinked pan-Baltic LNG receiving terminal and upgrade of cross-border trunk pipelines are recommended as the most efficient tools. Complex realization of all instruments and solidarity of the countries are the key issues to implement proposed strategy.