The family is a basic society unit, which provides a sense of security, love and belonging for all its members, especially children. The responsibility for the development and upbringing of the children lies with the parents. However, in a situation when a parent is incarcerated for various reasons the threats for personal emotional security increase due to disruption of contacts with relatives which is typical consequence both for parents and children. The parent’s stay in penitentiary isolation results in a significant weakening or breaking of the parental bond and contacts with the closest relatives. It is therefore stressed that maintaining contact with the family is important both for persons deprived of their liberty themselves and for their loved ones. Maintaining contact with the children is considered to be one of the most important protective factors against committing another offence and the consequent incarceration. Children brought up in families where one parent is in prison experience social and emotional disorders. Author stress that the separation of a parent and child as a consequence of parent incarceration lowers the level of self-esteem, self-acceptance, evokes a sense of shame and leads to social isolation of the child. In order to improve family relations and maintain contacts, the Prison Service should provide a number of programmes for incarcerated parents, whose main objective is to strengthen parenting skills.
The aim of the article is to present the basic aspects of command, functioning, decision-making, and responsibility. The author focuses on showing the broadly understood command system, especially in the course of implementing security tasks. Therefore, the content of the article presents an analysis of basic definitions, goals, assumptions, strategies of action for correctly perceived command based on the authority and genius of the person at the forefront of this process - the commander.
Command is seen as a process in which the commander imposes their will and manner of operation through orders, supported by an element of planning, organizing, anticipating, motivating, and controlling. The main and most important assumption of command is to create all possible circumstances to ensure maximum safety of execution of the task as well as for the entities participating in it. While analysing command as a process within a system, it should be emphasized that modern command system should be structured in such a way as to enable action to be correctly planned in a timely manner with a flexible and rapid response to changes in the situation. The ideal command system organized on principles of security should be able to gather relevant information continuously, comprehensively, selectively, and quickly. Command is the process of imposing the will of the commander and implementing their intentions, controlling the action and being responsible for decisions that often have very serious consequences. It is a responsible, multivariant and multi-entity process, which implemented skillfully, strengthens the position of the decision maker, as well as affects the morale of the performers and strives for the final success of the task.
The article presents the current patterns in education of Prison Service officers on the example of one of the largest penitentiary units in Poland, i.e. the Penitentiary Facility in Włocławek. The tendencies and changes in provision by qualified staff in penitentiary system as a prerequisite of societal safety were defined due to analysis of data about education of officers of the Prison Service and penitentiary department in the years 1999–2019. In order to investigate the role of rehabilitation staff in the penitentiary system, it is important to assess the current distribution and structural changes in penitentiary staff which, in turn, can be crucial for achieving the objectives of the execution of the imprisonment penalty. To achieve and maintain societal safety, particularly security in penitentiary system it is important to consider changes in the capacity of the prisons. In this regard main positive trends are: increase of number and share of staff with special tertiary education affects the quality of the social rehabilitation work at the penitentiary facility; gender distribution of Prison Service staff tends to reflect distribution on prisoners; professional qualification of officers grows steadily. The main challenge for current penitentiary system in order to increase its educational impact on prisoners is hiring process which should be directed on attracting graduates of rehabilitation pedagogy and penitentiary pedagogy to work in the penitentiary department.
The security in penitentiary system depends a lot on prison subculture. This subculture consists in adopting values, norms and principles that facilitate to fulfil one’s own needs in conditions of imprisonment. However, very often informal groups base their activities on patterns derived from the criminal subculture. The prison subculture often depreciates human dignity, being one of the most important factors disturbing the process of institutional rehabilitation. At the same time, there is a lack of scientific researches that can help to develop the field of behavioural studies in informal structures culture which have a significant influence on the state security due to the efficiency of penitentiary system and its rehabilitation function. To mitigate the gap in current investigations in this field, this research deals with prison subculture in Polish penitentiary system based on survey of penitentiary service officers. Our findings allow to conclude the significant changes in prison subculture during last decade. The most important are: increase of authority among inmates with a better material situation (23%), a greater degree of implementation of rehabilitation programmes by inmates (18.8%), as well as blurring the differences between prisoners mainly due to their joint participation in group activities (17%). To strengthen the further positive effect of penitentiary system on social norms and behaviour of prisoners it is advisable to eliminate potential sources and possibilities for obtaining, accumulating and transferring illegal income by convicted persons. This action defined as main tool to mitigate the subculture phenomenon and its impact of the rehabilitation process in penitentiary institutions.
Circular economy conception is a result of development of sustainability. Since 1987, when the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) has developed and published the document “Our Common Future”, numerous institutions monitor sustainable development (SD) at global, national or regional level. Recently The European Commission adopted a Circular Economy Package, which consists of an EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy that establishes a concrete programme of action, with measures covering the whole cycle and sets out the timeline when the actions will be complete. This paper analyses and tries to answer a question about what should be taking into account setting circular economy indicators.
This paper focuses on personal security and social care issues in the two EU countries: Germany and the Czech Republic. It is obvious that the Czech legislator strove for a comprehensive and complete Codification. However, it is doubtful whether such a density is really necessary or whether the worldwide trend for the simplification of international private law is not missed. In contrast to this stands the German law, which is limited to a large extent to principles and avoids detail regulations. Exceptions are made only in the case of consumer rights and the registered life partnership. However these two institutes are particularly regulation needy, since they are not yet common in every country. The social care cannot be seen only as the responsibility of regional authorities or the state and its law. The elderly, children, homelesses, living in municipalities, are entitled to expect that their municipality will be fully aware of their problems and needs. The municipality, really state is responsible for all its citizens, and issues involving the social care will be at the forefront in several decades as a result of recent demographic indicators. This fact is also closely related to the responsible legal system supporting development of in-home social care services and quality of social workers at the state level and its law. Both codifications are coherent and effective. However the Czech legislator should think at least about an implementation of the consumer protection. Not at least because the consumers protection is one of the social policies of the European Union.
The article presents an analytical overview of models of social policies in the context of their application to socio-economic system of Latvia. In the article, the history and peculiarities of the creation of integrated social policy of member states of the European Union, European social model as well as a system of Key Indicators characterizing the social policy of Latvia in the context of the European Integration are analyzed. The problems faced by Latvia in its socio-economic development and ways to overcome them are identified. The necessity of forming a new model of socio-economic policy in Latvia by the transition to a model of sustainable development is justified. Proposals to improve the social policy of Latvia by the transition to the model of sustainable development of the country are made.
The paper analyses the results of a research conducted with the aim to study topical questions on social innovation attempting to disclose its role expressed via its mission and impact on the Latvian society in the context of sustainable development. The authors present the methodology, conduct and results of the qualitative content analysis of the texts of a focus group discussion with participants from the fields of entrepreneurship, education, communication, sport and charity. The empirical data were analysed with open coding using AQUAD 6 software for the registration of conceptual codes, data processing and creation of frequency tables of categories developed. Having summarised the main findings, it was concluded that social innovation may promote the development of both individuals and the entire society improving the quality of people’s life. The research resulted in the revelation of five domains of social innovation impact including the development at the: intrapersonal, interpersonal interaction, societal growth, innovation, and work opportunity levels.