Information technology is already widely used in inheritance legal relations. The most typical examples of their application are the preparation of a will with the use of technical means, the fixing of a will certificate with the help of technical means, a notary’s appeal to electronic registers in the process of searching for a property, and maintaining the inheritance register. However, it can be stated that the existing technologies are not sufficiently involved in the relations on the compilation, certification, and implementation of the will, which is explained by the tough mandatory regime established for the form of the will. The implementation of the electronic will institution and the expansion of the secret will regime are promising areas of scientific and legislative work in this area. Given the civil law nature of both the rights to individual IT objects and the obligations, which arise from such objects, the issues of inheritance of such objects should remain within the general permissive legal regime. The user should be able to independently decide the fate of their own assets in a virtual environment. Increasing the economic and social value of such assets makes it impossible to find them outside the legal field and therefore should establish a legal regime for their inheritance. It is these factors that affect the national security of countries.
The article is devoted to the study of the state environmental security in national and globalization aspects. It has been established that the environmental security of the state is a status of every person’s security, society, state and nature from excessive danger to the environment, i.e. the preservation and protection of vital activity, individual’s interests and his environment from negative anthropogenic and natural consequences, which is an important component of the state security. It is established that together with the concept of “environmental security” there is a concept of “environmental modernization” as overcoming of negative impacts on environment from the industrial society by transformation of the latter with help of the latest technologies. The existing threats to Ukraine’s environmental security, identified in the National Security Strategy of Ukraine in 2015 have been determined. The need for additional attention to the armed conflict in eastern Ukraine was emphasized as one of the threats to the states’s economic security, which is in line with the provisions of the United Nations Resolution “Environmental Protection in Areas Affected by Armed Conflict”. It is noted that the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources only formally fulfills the task of assessing the environmental status, unlike Finland and Sweden. The issue of public participation of Ukraine in environmental management is still debatable, as defined by the Law of Ukraine “On Environmental Protection”, it remains only formal, although, for example, the public is actively involved in the management of this field in China. Accordingly, it was proposed not only compliting tasks by the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources to develop a single list of indicators at EU level for assessing the environment status, but also to involve the public in full participation in environmental management.
Mediation is an example of one of the alternative methods of resolving legal disputes. Its use is becoming more and more common, and the very idea of using mediation institutions to resolve legal disputes brings many benefits to conflicting parties, which include speed of proceedings or its cheaper costs. On the basis of national legislation, mediation has become a universal institution because it has been regulated in both public and private law. The next step of the legislator was to equip the mediator in civil matters with various methods through which he can conduct mediation proceedings. Therefore, the mediator conducts mediation using various methods aimed at amicable settlement of the dispute, including by supporting the parties in formulating their settlement submissions or at the mutual request of the parties, it may also indicate ways of resolving the dispute which are not binding for the parties. However, the success of mediation is determined not only by the will of the parties, but also by the way the mediator conducts this procedure, which is characteristic of the conflict management formula. In turn, the instruments at the disposal of the mediator in civil matters, in addition to their real impact on increasing the number of mediation proceedings and settlements concluded before the mediator, which is an example of the desired solution, also imply other legal consequences, including optimization of the costs of the process. Therefore, in addition to financial benefits for parties benefiting from mediation by the society, it is worth considering the methods of conducting this procedure in civil matters, which are examples of tools for managing legal security.
At the heart of any banking system, there is the provision of payments. Payments can be made via fiat or crypto currencies, bank credit or deposits, or fund transfers on the books of non-bank payment providers. When using payment systems, security and protection of people and property are extremely important, especially in relation to cyberterrorism. The purpose of cybercrime is to gain material benefit using IT systems, while its targets can be both business and political actors. The focus of this article is on a profound analysis of extracted factors which would be necessary for achieving a comprehensive understanding and depiction of users’ behaviours and risks in the field of security of payment instruments as well as technologies aimed at improving intermediated retail payment transactions.
International migration is a functional component of modern societies, both wealthy and poor. In a way, one can see that migration solves the unequal distribution of people and opportunities. Despite the political pressure to control immigration, almost all changes in politics have broadened the scope of legal immigration to allow for settlement by refugees, farm workers (in case of urbanrural migrations), “illegal” immigrants with long-term residence in the country, and workers in great demand to move around freely. Our main research objective is to demonstrate, using the available data as well as the analysis of the metadata and the research literature, that migration, especially labour migration, has a narrow connection with the issues of national security. Large outflows and inflows of people might bring about security threats linked to organized crime, terrorism and the spread of radical ideas. Moreover, migration is responsible for the brain drain of young and well-educated people who are searching for higher wages and better opportunities abroad depriving their own home country of valuable human capital. Our paper analyses the phenomenon of international migration perceived from the angle of migration culture that goes hand in hand with recent globalization trends all around the world. We come to a solid conclusion that migration policy should be treated as an important element in establishing well-ballanced national security policy in the globalized world. It might be of a particular interest for the migration scholars, labour market economists and stakeholders and policy-makers dealing with the issues of national security, public and migration policies, as well as sustainable economic development.
Criteria are determined that can be applied to recognize waste as economic resources. The criteria for recognition of waste as economic resources include the following: the existence of property rights, the possibility of sale, the receipt of economic benefits and the environmental effect. These criteria are the basis of a new understanding of this economic concept and the basis for shaping the behavior of economic agents in waste management. The proposed criteria have a significant impact on the formation of the accounting system for waste and waste management operations. The place of waste in the environmental safety management system is substantiated on the basis of determining the process of its generation at all stages of economic activity of an industrial organization and the directions of its management both at the internal and inter-economy level. A waste classification matrix is developed for identification and recognition purposes, which makes it possible to form an information space as the basis for making management decisions in the field of environmental safety of industrial organizations.
The theoretical and methodological principles of researching the tax security of a state were substantiated with the emphasis placed on the two basic economic theories: the social choice theory and the reflectivity theory. The differential features of national tax systems under globalization conditions and their impact on the economic security of the countries that differ in the political regime, the level of economic development, geography and location were identified. There was given the assessment of the cross-sector approach, based on which multifactor effective marginal tax rates in the European Union (EU) are calculated, and of the marginal approach to taxation in general. The analytical study of tax security of the countries of Organization of economic cooperation and development (OECD) was carried out based on the assessment of the specific weight of taxes in gross domestic product, as well as the structure of taxes in the context of taxation objects: income individuals, income corporates, social security contributions, property, value added taxes, other consumption taxes. A particular attention is attached to the problems of taxation of the motion of capital and goods between the EU countries within the framework of ensuring the mutual economic benefits of the collective interests. The assessment of external and internal threats to tax security of Ukraine was performed based on the identification of the shadow economy segment, reasons for its emergence and consequences for the national economy, as well as the dynamics of the absolute and relative indicators of the budget-debt security. The recommendations on strengthening the tax security of Ukraine under the European integration conditions were given.
Information today is becoming increasingly important, especially in the era of progressive computerization and advancements in the area of computer technology. At the same time, there are also increasingly more threats to this category, of which the most important are criminal offenses against information protection. These are enforced by competent state authorities whose activity is necessary to maintain the proper level of security. The article deals mainly with the phenomenon of crime involving infringement of information, and its scale, using for this purpose the statistical data collected by the Polish National Police Headquarters.
Romania’s membership of NATO and the European Union has many advantages, but also risks for each of them. Romania continues to strengthen its position and role within NATO and the EU. Romania has shown that it is a loyal and credible partner in its relationship with all international organizations. Romania’s strategic documents with NATO and the EU are well structured and clear. These include mission, vision, strategic objectives and ways of cooperating with each other, as well as the financial, material, human and informational resources needed to implement them. The objective of our research was to identify the main threats, risks and vulnerabilities of Romania as a NATO member state. The analysis has led to the discovery of new ways of reducing risks and threats, as well as solving the major vulnerabilities of Romania. The research is based on the National Defense Strategy, the Romanian Armed Forces Endowment Plan for the period 2019-2028 and other strategic documents underpinning the development of the cooperation between Romania and NATO. Within the analysis process the main threats, risks and vulnerabilities of Romania in relation to NATO were identified. Based on the analysis carried out, several ways of action are proposed through which Romania can strengthen its defense and security capabilities. The results of the research are relevant both theoretically and practically because they show the major changes that Romania has made after entering NATO and the exceptional performances achieved both in the development of the defense and security capability and in fulfilling the commitments assumed by Romania with NATO and other organizations it belongs to.
User identifiers for financial transactions are widely used for personal identification numbers (PINs). PIN numbers are deposited at ATMs, card payments at POS terminals and electronic banking services. Bank card (ATM) credit card fraud has dramatically increased over the last decade. When analyzing the most common attacks and the reasons for successful frauds, it is clear that the main problem is PIN authentication, which itself does not produce any security features (except for the use of stars). This means that security is based solely on user behaviour. Research has focused on areas where personal protection and security is most failing, and that’s where the user is carrying a PIN along with a credit card, whether he or she changed the PIN on the payment card, and whether the PIN does not specify the date or year of his birth.