Protecting natural resources, for example through a functioning of environmentally protected areas at present is actually connected with eco-development concept, which helps to avoid some mistakes and socio-economical wastes. Creating and functioning of protected areas must be correlated with the development of the neighboring areas, in such a way that it would not be a threat for natural environment. Such neighboring areas are for example military training areas, which partly conserve the environment, as rich nature reserves, including protected areas are located on the majority of them. Therefore, the aim of the article is to examine the connection of protected areas on active military training areas. The article contains the diagnosis of military training areas in connection with protected areas and evaluation of the role of military training areas in nature conservation. The activity of the army on training areas, in view of current intensity and form of activities, should be regarded as not detrimental for nature.
The aim of the presented paper is to examine how technology transfer is being approached in the latest scientific literature, and whether interrelations of technology transfer and sustainable development are being elaborated. Clusters in this context are perceived as networks (not necessarily proximate in geographic terms), which serve as technology transmittors. Efficiency of clusters is being addressed. The ultimate aim of the research is to develop framework, which would allow proceeding analysis of links between technology transfer phenomenon and sustainable development process.
Driving factors and implications of foreign direct investments were widely discussed during the latest decade. Anyway, impression remains that due to the specifics of that type of investment, misinterpreting of their economic composition is rather frequent than rare. Hence, the paper starts with detailed classification of investment types. The next part of the paper is devoted to a review of approaches to FDI driving factors and outcomes. Finally, current trends of foreign capital flows in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia are being observed and evaluated. Novel insights about new consistent patterns of foreign capital directions are being provided. The paper is being finalized by indicating contemporary implications of FDI withdrawal for host country related to its further secure and sustainable development.
As an alternative to the conventional GDP, a new “progressive” GDP termed as the “Holistic Progress Index” or the HPI has been proposed; and an original approach to its quantitative evaluation has been presented. The HPI integrates social, economic, ecological and political aspects of human progress. The rationale of HPI and its evaluation methodology are presented. As proposed, the HPI is based on three major parameters i.e. the Net GDP per capita, Socio-Ecological Progress Index and Socio-Political Progress Index representing Peaceful Development, Sustainability and Human Freedom respectively. The factors involved in the quantitative evaluation of HPI are GDP, military expenditure, health, education, carbon emission, poverty reduction, leisure, population growth, crime and human freedom. Hence the proposed HPI is much more comprehensive than the conventional GDP. Future actions / projects required to utilize the concept of HPI are also proposed and discussed. It is concluded that a pursuit of the growth in HPI (rather than a growth in GDP alone) will lead to Peaceful and Sustainable Development without curtailing Human Freedom.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how learning in collaboration can support the development of sustainability competence in the military. The concept of sustainability in the military is controversial; nevertheless, requirements for more conscious decisions regarding economics, environment and society issues enter military practice and require rethinking the processes of military education and development. The application of computer-supported collaborative learning brings new opportunities in overcoming controversy of sustainability in the military and at the same time puts forward the solutions and skills for implementations of sustainability in the military.
Instead of using traditional approach towards sustainability as an interaction of the following three components: economic viability, social welfare and environmental protection, we described sustainability in the military as a composition of mission, management of installations and stakeholders, operations and maintenance, environment protection and quality of life. According to these categories, e-learning platform was developed. The core of this platform is the formal learning curriculum, which serves as a shell under which a variety of practices can be introduced to address the desired training objectives. The complex solution was accomplished with computerfacilitated collaborative learning that enables teem-working, collaboration and peer-assessment. Computer-facilitated collaborative learning supports social interaction in the learning system and sustains group-work within a variety of decision-making frameworks. Those features of the learning system are very important considering the controversy and complexity of sustainability in the military.