The article reviews standards of state policies in terms of the national security of the European Union countries. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of the theory and practice of providing national security in the EU countries. In addition to that, the article provides for a deep analysis of the major methodological approaches in regards to establishing national security in the EU. The authors make a systematic review of the development and implementation of the EU security doctrines. The aim of this research article is to analyze the development of the idea of developing a European defense policy to find an effective way of incorporating our state into European security structures. Also, the research question may be posed as discussion on the way the national security is guaranteed in the EU countries. The novelty of the study is in the way how the past, current and future national security setup is implemented in the EU countries and what may the ways of its development. Materials and methods used in studying this problem, researches and publications of such domestic and foreign researchers were used. At the same time, processes of global and European security need constant analysis and study. The results showed that the problem of the formation of the European security and defense system that emerged shortly after the end of the Second World War prompted European countries to work more closely together, particularly in the defense sector. After the Cold War and the emergence of new challenges for stability on the continent, the EU has embarked on a path towards greater consolidation and greater awareness of own defense and security interests. Conclusion of the article is that an analysis of the approaches to the national security in the EU convincingly demonstrates that the level of security depends on many factors. The successful provision of national security strategy and approach depends on the sustainability and strength of their national economies. Only a strong economy allows successfully defending national interests in growing global competition and world economic disparities. Therefore, a country shall not only develop a national security concept, relying on world experience, but, above all, to reform its domestic and foreign policies with a view to protecting all actors.
In 2010s, the mainstream academic debate slowly but surely shifted towards European Union’s internal crisis and the possibility of its disintegration. United Kingdom applying to exit the Union in 2017 is the most recent and arguably the strongest indicator of such possibility. “Brexit” (as this process was dubbed) provides an interesting testing ground for latent European disintegration theories proposed by some political scientists. As the withdrawal negotiations have just started, one can only raise causal arguments for the future (if..., then); therefore this article employs scenario-building methodology recently established in political science with an aim to develop a set of scenarios of possible UK-EU relationship after Brexit. Four driving forces are cross-combined: (1) U.S. involvement in European security matters and bilateral relations with UK, (2) German leadership of the integrationist projects within the EU, (3) activism of the European Commission and the European Court of Justice, and (4) the stability of current minority cabinet in UK under Prime Minister May. The three scenarios that logically follow are: (1) UK as member of a nascent European security and defence union, (2) UK’s return to the EU, and (3) UK as an independent power in an “anglobal” world. Rarely, however, do any scenarios composed by political scientists ever materialize in full and a mix of all three scenarios is most likely to come to pass over the course of the next five years or so.
This paper has aimed to explore the inter-linkages of economic growth, poverty and inequality in the context of the European Union (EU) countries during the period of 2005 – 2016. Descriptive statistics analysis and econometric methods have been applied for this purpose. Research results have revealed statistically significant interrelationships between growth and poverty in half of the European Union countries. Moreover, in majority of these countries poverty has been elastic of economic growth. It should be noted, that the countries with higher level of economic development have relatively smaller share of population living below the national poverty lines. However, we cannot say the same about the growth – inequality relationships, which have varied across the EU countries. There are economically strong countries with relatively high income inequality and economically weaker countries with lower income distribution coefficients. However, in many cases poverty and income inequality tend to move in the same direction, i.e. as one increases, the other as well and vice versa. Finally, the insights of the research could be useful in developing a common strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth and achieving the goals for Europe 2020.
Our paper is dealing with the issues of energy security and economic development. Our focus is on the changes and challenges that are posed in front of the many countries with regard to the threat of the shortages of energy sources and the depletion of the existing carbon sources. Economic, social and demographic changes in the world call for the novel solutions that would include innovative ways how to secure the smooth and undisrupted flow of energy for maintaining the daily lives of the citizens. We are particularly interested in showing how the integration of energy systems or the coordination between neighboring energy systems might contribute to the sustainable development and operation of the energy sector. The paper uses an example of hydro energy storage in order to show the shortcomings of the battery energy storage and the ways how it can be solved. Our results and findings show that renewable energy sources might become a viable solution to the problems specified above. Well-balanced and well-placed usage of renewables might cushion the shortcomings of the traditional energy systems and prevent major shocks to the energy security through the world and in the European Union countries.
Ensuring the defence of freedom, independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, and population belongs to the main tasks of each state. Therefore, countries, in response to the current political, security and economic situation, must earmark, within the framework of their national budgets, a proportion of the available resources to ensure their defence. The aim of the article, based on current trends in the defence budgets of the European Union member states, is point out that not only the global economic and financial crisis and the credit and debt crisis in the euro area have a significant negative impact on the amount of resources, which individual European Union member states earmark to ensure their defence.