The share of natural gas as an efficient resource in the deficient Baltic primary energy balance is and will be significant (power generation, district heating, households, industry, etc.). Therefore, in the paper the risk of gas supply is evaluated and appropriate actions are recommended to assure reliable availability of affordable and sustainable energy in the Baltic States. Macro-region’s base (including supply and transit countries), risk and cost assessments, timely introduction of non-market measures, high cyber security level of information processing and management systems are the components of the security strategy. The extension of Incukalns UGS, interlinked pan-Baltic LNG receiving terminal and upgrade of cross-border trunk pipelines are recommended as the most efficient tools. Complex realization of all instruments and solidarity of the countries are the key issues to implement proposed strategy.
The aim of the paper is to review the international organizations’ approaches to the measurement of sustainable development and explore the system of indicators provided by the considered organizations. The systems of proposed indicators to measure sustainable development are being juxtaposed, specific features, advantages and disadvantages revealed. Organizations for sustainable development were founded to review progress at the international, regional and national levels in the implementation of sustainable development policy, to take part in legislative process, to control balance between economic development, social development, and environmental development.
The aim of this article is to formulate hypotheses about the impact of the foreign direct investment (FDI) on sustainable development indicators of differently developed countries with reference to the relevant scientific literature. The impact of foreign direct investment on development and facets of sustainable development has been discussed in this article. After the review of the relevant scientific literature some consistent patterns have been identified, what, finally, led to the formulation of initial hypotheses. The countries were grouped according to the level of their development. A set of sustainable development indicators reflecting different facets of sustainability and sensitive to countries’ development level has been distinguished. The following indicators have been considered as relevant for inclusion into the set, which would be used for estimation of FDI impact on enhancing well-being in the unevenly developed countries: GDP, exports, inflation, population, life expectancy at birth, primary school pupils, infant mortality, total health expenditure per capita, total tax rate, internet users, and residential consumption of electricity). As this article is focused for the long-term perspective of FDI impact on sustainable development, it was based on three aspects of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental. Series of hypothesis have been formulated in this paper.
Over the years there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of social enterprises in India. This is partly a consequence of a new policy of the government to gradually withdraw from social development activities. The gap thus created is being filled by social enterprises. A social enterprise can be a for-profit or not-for-profit venture engaged in income-generating activities with an agenda of bringing positive change in the society. While social enterprises are engaged in the development of people, it is rather paradoxical that they experience a variety of problems with respect to the management of human resources within their enterprises. It is common knowledge that social enterprises perennially struggle with various critical human resources issues such as getting employees at low rates of compensation, providing growth opportunities for employees within the organization, retaining talent especially in the middle management, providing clearly defined roles and tasks to employees, leading to high attrition and increasing the cost of acquiring and training new employees. Thus, it becomes critical for social enterprises to think out-of-the-box and try a variety of innovative strategies to overcome these problems. This paper discusses a few such innovative HR strategies adopted by social enterprises to attract and retain talent, such as offering jobs to people with vision and value congruence, enhancing the credibility of the organization through brand building, providing opportunities for personal growth, creating a sense of ownership among employees through participation in decision making, creating sense of ownership among employees by giving equity shares, creating entrepreneurial opportunities within the organization, finding employees from among beneficiaries, attracting employees to serene lifestyle in peaceful and scenic location and providing attractive fringe benefits to the employees. Collectively these strategies seem to suggest that social enterprises adopt a ‘partnership paradigm’ for managing their employees.
Presented paper aims to investigate internationalization of multinational company by exploring the main proactive and reactive factors impacting internationalization process. The authors strive to reveal the patterns of internationalization taking into account the aspects of the main theoretical models. The research is based on the main ideas of stage, learning and contingency approaches. The main proactive and reactive factors impacting internationalization process are based on the previous studies. The authors develop a research methodology and discuss main findings of the case study and survey. Results of the empirical investigation allow concluding that internationalization of a multinational company was initiated by several factors, namely environment, market, home and production.
In contemporary economy innovations by the scientists are seen as a driving force of the economic development. Innovation performance is vital to achieve sustainable country’s competition and to stay in pace with other developed economies (Grossmann 2009).
The paper aims to reveal theoretical aspects of innovation activity, to systemize and analyze the key elements of measurement framework and relationship between the innovative activity and patents, research and development (R&D). The study is devoted to describing the conceptual elements of innovation, assessing if prevailing understanding about innovation performance approves theoretical approaches and reviewing innovation tendencies in Lithuania. Obtained results lead to get the general view about the innovation activity development. The research methodology is based on theoretical approaches’ comparative analysis, academics’ survey examination and generalization.