Economic security of any state is multifaceted. Affordability of basics, required for living serves are precondition for economic security of any state. The study presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of apartment sales in respective voivodships in Poland. The following dependent variables concerning apartments in sixteen voivodships were analyzed: price per \( m^2 \), number of sales and its value. The dynamics indices on a constant basis and the normalization for stimulants were used for the analyzes. The results of the research were compiled on categorized bar charts, conducting the ranking, as well as indicating and outlining the level of deviation of the analyzed data adopted by the author. The conducted research clearly showed how much of an impact on the state’s economy, with particular emphasis on the subject of research presented in the article, which is the apartment trade market, has a random incident, such as a pandemic, and how difficult it is to return to the conditions before Covid-19.
Wars and armed conflicts have accompanied mankind from the beginning of history and belong to the category of social phenomena. They became a permanent part of the historical process and are changing with it. Throughout history, wars have changed, as have views on the phenomenon of war, on war theories and strategic concepts. These views were and are a derivative of the progress of civilization. Since the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, societies and nations have been the cause and target of wars to the larger extent than countries. Territory and power are no longer the primary causes and goals of armed conflicts. The analysis of these changes allows us to call these phenomena “new wars”. The article presents the issues of changes and transformations of wars and armed conflicts. It was stated that defining war as a political act was no longer sufficient. It was also established that in a changing world, new forms of war existed and would continue to emerge. The classic war, however, is not yet gone.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of apartment prices in seventeen cities in Poland from the first quarter of 2017 to the first quarter of 2021 in terms of the maintenance of economic security. Prices were analyzed in two aspects: value and dynamics of changes, referring to the first period under consideration in spatial terms (in each of the seventeen cities). The research used multidimensional comparative analyzes, such as: Chernoff faces and normalization with the use of stimulants. This, in turn, made it possible to examine the similarities and differences in the prices of 1 m2 of residential real estate in respective cities in Poland in a dynamic approach.
Due to the geopolitical situation, the scarcity of raw materials, the foreign policy actions of the major powers, the excessive use of resources worldwide and the struggle for them, as well as the inequalities caused by the demographic explosion of developing countries, europe and thus Hungary from the wider Middle East region have been under considerable migratory pressure for a long time, and this has increased further in 2021 on the basis of statistical data. (Frontex). Europe is trying to provide more answers to the problem. It is trying to keep refugees as far away as possible by developing and improving living conditions in the countries where migration flows originate, as well as by establishing migration zones beyond the EU’s borders and financing them, because these problems need to start to be addressed and solved at local level. Despite all this, refugees are constantly reaching Europe, and unfortunately among them are not only those who fear for their lives and lose everything, fleeing war, but also economic migrants who join the wave of migration and are probably members of organisations that pose a threat to European values and public security. (Kotzur, Moya, Sözen, Romano 2020). By building physical border closures, several EU countries have closed certain migration routes, but this has not eliminated the problem, only the routes have been reorthled. The registration and clear identification of immigrants in the attempt to cross the border and their identification within the EU pose a number of unresolved problems for the authorities. (Beňuška, T., Nečas, 2021). We are reviewing and comparing the methods of identification used in border policing with modern biometric identification methods in order to draw attention to the fact that technology has long been ready to be used to protect our security in the service of European values and security. But at the same time, a significant deterrent is the difficult transition from entrenched solutions to the fear of misuse of biometric data. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to consider trade-offs in use and technology and to think more effectively together at EU level as a common solution on the regulatory side. (EU Regulation 399/2016).
Leadership competence is a unique set of qualities, skills, knowledge and abilities attributed to specific social and professional groups. Cultural circumstances mean that societies in different countries may have different views on the nature, development opportunities and scope of leadership competences. There are also more and more differences occurring in the views resulting from generational differences. In addition, existing stereotypes in societies are constantly fuelled by media messages, which determines how the image of different formations, including soldiers, is assessed. Bearing in mind the complexity of the nature of leadership, different views of both theoreticians, practitioners and laymen in terms of leadership competence, or even the natural attribution of leadership competence to soldiers and the essence of leadership in the military environment, the author of the article has made efforts to show what kind of leadership competence is held by the soldiers in Poland in the opinion of representatives of the youngest generation (generation Z). This article is based on an in-depth analysis of the source literature (Polish and foreign) and the results of empirical research. Ascertainments and conclusions presented in the article confirm the conviction about the complexity of the nature of leadership, leadership competences, as well as the functioning of stereotypes in the society, which in a certain natural way determine the ways of thinking and the course of cognitive processes.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the exchange rates of five currencies: dollar, euro, franc, pound and ruble in zlotys and crude oil in dollars per barrel from 2005 to 2022. The research was conducted in terms of the identification of contemporary challenges for the economic security of enterprises in Poland. Grouping was used as part of multidimensional comparative analyzes. In the categorized line charts, in order to observe the trends in dynamic terms as a decrease and an increase in the rates of the analyzed data, a separate Y-axis scale was assigned to each of the analyzed dependent variables.
This paper focuses on social distancing and organisational learning of institutions in the post-pandemic crisis. The empirical material consists of in-depth interviews with cultural managers. Data analysis was framed within a qualitative grounded theory methodology as a dynamic, intuitive and creative process of inductive reasoning, thinking and theorizing. The data were subsequently assigned into categories of identified themes or topics compiled in the study. The coding process yielded over 160 concepts, of which 140 relevant ones were eventually used, creating a total of 6 categories: (1) privacy and security; (2) social distancing; (3) identity; (4) learning and support; (5) digitalization; (6) initiative and autonomy. The core category that emerged from these six categories is security, social networks and organisational sustainability. So as to analyse the chosen problems authors use a philosophical and sociological approach, that is based mainly on criticism of writing and the analytical and synthetic method. This study describes the phases of organisational learning and reveals turning points in understanding the future implications of events critical to the creation of new context-specific knowledge initiated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Inspired by research that has demonstrated the positive effects of focus on employees’ wellbeing and cognitive performance in change management, the current research aims to explore the social background of structural changes. This reasoning is rooted in the analysis of several mediating concepts such as social distancing, experience, language, social interaction and perspective taking. The outcomes of the research are significant as they provide recommendations that target crucial issues of organisational changes and barriers during the crisis situation understood in terms of disaster management.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the number of employees in the enterprise sector in Poland on a quarterly basis between 2010-2021 and new and withdrawn jobs dynamically in terms of economic security. The volume of employment and salary for work in Poland in the enterprise sector by type of activity was analyzed. The last stage of the research was the analysis and evaluation of the time series of salaries in Poland and its forecasting for the future.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the implementation of investments in the water and sewage sector in Poland and other European countries using the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) formula. The paper identifies the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats arising from the use of this formula for local government public tasks for the delivery and treatment of domestic wastewater, in the context of EU legislation. It also examines the validity of the use of PPP in the context of the implementation of the principle of sustainable development in water management. PPPs are commonly used to deliver strategic public services under financial limitations. Countries such as the United Kingdom and Ireland, based on years of experience and good practices, are effectively implementing PPP projects, including those in the water and sewerage sector. The provision of treated drinking water and the treatment of municipal wastewater is a fundamental task ensuring an adequate quality of life for people by maintaining public health at an appropriate level. The fact that water and sanitation infrastructure and service provision in this sector is expensive, both at the construction and operational stages, has led countries at different levels of development to turn to public-private partnerships. Properly managed PPP projects secure the interests of both the private and public partner and the end user of the services. The analysis of data and examples of European PPPs in the water and wastewater sector shows that PPPs have been successful for most public entities that have chosen them. Good practices from Scotland, Ireland and Poland, as well as projects that have experienced difficulties, show that stable and friendly legislation, thorough pre-feasibility studies and an appropriate allocation of risk make PPPs successful. In the context of the conducted analysis, PPP is a tool enabling the realization of tasks in the water and sewage sector, where the public party’s budget possibilities are limited. Moreover, PPP is a component of the realization of the sustainable development principle. The idea that the use of natural resources, including water, which is fundamental to the biological and cultural needs of humankind, should be met in such a way as to save them for future generations, is realized in PPP projects. This paper demonstrates that the use of financial assembly opportunities in PPPs makes it possible to significantly intensify the construction of new and upgrading of existing water and wastewater infrastructure. It contributes to the protection of aquatic ecosystems and securing public health associated with living in direct proximity to surface water and discharging wastewater without affecting the natural environment and human habitats.
The study focuses on the generalization of the methodology of transport planning with the use of the LOGFAS IT system. The main activities that must be performed in order to plan the transport correctly in the IT software were presented. This process requires a lot of experience and work in many program modules and the implementation of a lot of different information without which planning is impossible.