The study presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of two dependent variables: the number of passengers transported by air in 28 European countries and the price of one barrel of crude oil in dollars. The conducted analysis shows that in the historical data concerning the identical periods (months) in both tested series, dependencies can be found. This allowed for the construction of a zero-one multiple regression model in order to confirm the impact of the number of passengers travelling by air on the price of one barrel of crude oil and describe this phenomenon with an analytical function.
Progressive changes in many areas of the business environment and internal processes in business entities are increasingly the cause of crises occurring in them, in extreme cases resulting in the need to declare bankruptcy. Bankruptcies can be considered, on the one hand, as a manifestation of maladaptation to the requirements and transformations of the market, but more and more often they become a derivative of phenomena over which entrepreneurs have absolutely no influence. The paper attempts to analyze the scale of business bankruptcies in Poland in 2009-2021, which was based on data from the Central Statistical Office and the Central Economic Information Center. Exploratory research was carried out on a time sample of 12,960 entities for the years 2009-2021, which declared bankruptcy in the analyzed period and represented all enterprises of the Polish market from the time period adopted for the research. The analyzed sample took into account the number of bankruptcies of enterprises falling on particular years. The purpose of the article is to analyze the scale of the bankruptcy phenomenon in Poland over the period 2009-2021 and to try to identify the existing dependencies.
The study comprises a multidimensional comparative analysis of the number of passengers transported by rail in twelve European countries between 2019-2021; the considered data were grouped and analyzed. The dynamics indices with a constant base were used in the study. The aim of the article was a comparative analysis of the number of passengers transported by rail in the European countries under consideration between 2019-2021. The result of the research is the observation of an increase in the number of passengers transported by rail in twelve European countries in 2021 compared to 2020 by 374 965 people. It was visible in nine out of the twelve countries considered. The largest one was observed in France, with around 170 544 passengers. Considering the percentage increase between 2020 and 2021 in respective countries in rail passenger transport, it was observed that the most significant increase was in Italy, which amounted to 25,61%.
The analysis of the training needs for the crews of police multi-purpose Black Hawk S70i helicopters serving in Polish Police Forces has been an impulse to attempt the construction of the simulation system within the research and development project financed by the National Centre for Research and Development entitled “Helicopter Simulator for Police Aviation” consisting of three components, i.e. a training stand for a pilot (cockpit), a stand for a cargo handler, a training stand for the police officers practicing the air drop operations. The simulator is supposed to provide an opportunity to drill various emergency situations, which consequently will allow to prepare the crews and technical personnel in the full range to perform the tasks as far as theoretical knowledge and practical skills are concerned. Replacing real exercises by the training held in virtual environment will contribute to the decreased costs to be incurred by Police and increased safety for any persons participating in the actions remaining the subject matters of the said trainings. The article presents the designing assumptions resulting, among other things, from multidisciplinary research performed over the determination of the detailed training needs and equipment requirements with regards to the Full Flight Simulator. The said research was conducted in collaboration with the officers of the Police Aviation Board in the High Command of the Police Headquarters as well as the operators of the counter terrorism sub-units of Polish Police Forces.
The Russian Federation, with its plans to regain influence over former Soviet bloc countries, currently constitutes the main military danger for the EU and NATO. Because the war is so close to the EU’s borders, European allies have every reason to increase army financing instead of fuelling a transatlantic disagreement about burden sharing. This article deals with the question of whether the high strategic threat posed by Russia has increased military spending among European allies and decreased free-riding practices after 2014. To analyse this problem, we applied Spearman’s Rank Correlation test and then made a comparative analysis of 21 countries that are both EU and NATO members. Our results confirmed that European allies did not react in the same way to the Russian threat. We proved that strategic factors played a key role in the majority of Eastern European members of NATO, but not across Western European allies.
Cybersecurity is an important issue for individuals, organizations, and governments in Algeria and around the world. Cyberattacks can have serious consequences, including financial loss, theft of sensitive information, damage to reputation, and disruption of essential services. To help protect against these types of threats, it is important for individuals and organizations to take steps to secure their systems and data. This can include using strong passwords, keeping software and security protocols up to date, and being cautious when interacting with unfamiliar websites or individuals online. Governments may also have policies and regulations in place to help protect against cyber threats and to respond to incidents when they do occur. Algeria is currently not among the countries that prioritize cyber security sufficiently.
The research includes a multidimensional comparative analysis of electricity prices in 28 European countries for non-household consumers. The highest energy prices in the first half of 2022 were also ranked in the respective analyzed countries. Increases in electricity prices for non-household consumers were examined in terms of percentage and value from the second half of 2019 to the first half of 2022 and the increases were ranked. Their leader in terms of percentage and value was Greece with the result of 353,50% which constitutes EUR 0,288 of the price increase per 1 KWh in the considered time period. A multiple regression model was also built and showed that the time series of natural gas price quotations had an impact on the increase in electricity prices for non-household consumers.
This research article aims to investigate green public procurement as a tool for sustainable and secure food policy on the example of Poland. The practical objective of the study is to present the application of an analyzed wide range policy tool supporting sustainable food consumption in Poland. First, the systematic literature review of regulatory and market-based tools with an overview on policy rationale was carried out. Second, to assess consumers’ preferences on green public procurement, the exploratory survey with CAWI method in period from 1.01 to 31.03.2022 was conducted. Third, to quantify the survey results, one-way ANOVA analysis was applied. Fourth, to deepen only statistically significant dependencies between customers and green public procurement, Cluster Analysis was used. There are plenty interesting and applicative findings from the study. In a short time-horizon, the results show that there is a growing interest in market-based instruments on the food market expressed by consumers. Moreover, the consumers favor those that are less coercive and do not directly affect their freedom of food choice. The study found a high degree of match between green public procurement and established consumer clusters, which can be applied by state authorities in a long-time horizon.
A Review of the Book: Besenyő, J., Huddleston, R.J., and Zoubir, Y.H. (eds.) (2022). Conflict and Peace in Western Sahara: The Role of the UN’s Peacekeeping Mission (MINURSO) (1st ed.). Routledge: London. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003284895
Humanitarian NGOs work on social security and health security at local, regional and global levels. Natural and artificial disasters have increased worldwide in the past, and our future will not be immune. The role of civil society organizations (CSOs) is seen in mixed light, as local, regional and global CSOs exist and operate worldwide. The local group includes those active and valuable only in a single city or town; the regional group consists of those with a national or continental presence; and the global group includes those active locally, regionally and visibly on several continents. One such international organization is the Hungarian Charity Service of the Order of Malta. Understanding the NGOs activity management philosophy and the existence of humanitarian NGOs in the global security arena, and understanding the global activity management of the Order of Malta’s Organisation, The Hungarian Charity Service of the Order of Malta, requires an analysis of international security, the structure of European security and the security issues in Hungary, and the interconnections between them.