The study traces the development occurred in the alliance between Putin’s Russia and the European far-right parties since the European Parliamentary election held in May 2019. The article briefly summarizes the populist upsurge in Europe, exploring the reasons behind it. Consequently, the relations established between the political actors are outlined, starting with the concept of “sovereign democracy” to cover all the eventual points where the interests of the Kremlin match with those of the European far-right populists. The ultimate purpose of the study is to define three possible macro-scenarios for the alliance and, indirectly, for the European Union in the near term, concluding that even though the uprising of the populist parties has been somehow contained and the alliance has been widely exposed, the far-right still benefits from great success among public opinion. Furthermore, however ephemeral and transitory the collaboration between Putin and the populists may be, it has already laid the foundations for a more fruitful understanding. Russia’s importance as an economic and political partner will grow as its friendly political forces do and their mutual sympathy will stand until there are reciprocal gains.
Siekiant įvertinti atominės elektrinės pastatymo Lietuvoje perspektyvas ir galimą naudą, straipsnyje analizuojami branduolinės energijos plėtrą Europoje ir visame pasaulyje lemiantys veiksniai. Atkreipiamas dėmesys į griežtėjantį atominės energetikos plėtros reglamentavimą, galintį turėti įtakos ir aštrėjančiai konkurencinei kovai tarp Lietuvoje bei Rusijoje ir Baltarusijoje statomų elektrinių. Straipsnio pabaigoje daroma išvada, jog nepaisant didelių atominių elektrinių statybos sąnaudų, neišspręstų panaudoto branduolinio kuro laidojimo problemų, sparčios atsinaujinančių išteklių plėtros ir kitų veiksnių, branduolinė energetika išlaikys savo vaidmenį regiono valstybių energijos balansuose. Lietuvos branduolinės elektrinės pastatymo galimybės straipsnyje taip pat vertinamos palankiai.
The article aims to evaluate the prospects of construction of a nuclear power plant in Lithuania and the possible benefits, as well as to analyse the decisive factors of development of nuclear energy in Europe and worldwide. Attention is paid to the increasingly stringent regulation of the development of nuclear energy, which may play a role in the growing competition among the nuclear power plants built in Lithuania, Russia and Belarus. The article ends with the conclusion that despite the high costs of construction of nuclear power plants, pending problems of disposal of spent nuclear fuel, rapid development of renewable resources and other factors, nuclear energy will retain its role in the energy balances of the countries in the region. The article also gives a positive assessment of the possibilities of construction of a nuclear power plant in Lithuania.
This article provides theoretical assumptions of crises management operations and gives a short overview of all EU civilian and military missions conducted at the end of 2007. Reasons regarding why the EU has chosen to develop their mostly civilian crises management capabilities and cooperates so closely with other international organizations in this regard, are also presented in the article. The conclusion is that the EU in its external relations tends to use similar instruments such as strengthening EU internal integration. That is why the development of civilian crises management capabilities most likely will remain faster comparing to development of military ones. Besides that, due to obvious shortages in capabilities generation process, the EU in crises management will commit itself, most often only complimenting the activities of other international organisations.