This study shall present the consequences of the paradigm shift in thinking about law that took place in Ancient Rome (primarily, but not exclusively, in the early republic). It will present what distinguished the Roman concept of law from the concept of law present in other ancient laws, and what is still a living heritage of Roman thought, even if we do not realize it on a daily basis. Roman law will be compared with other laws of the European cultural circle, and therefore, apart from ancient Greece, the so-called Eastern despotias and the state (states) of the Jews. However, it is more about ideas than specific solutions. Therefore, in the comparative material will be also included the Muslim law, although it was created after the promulgation of the Justinian Code, considered the final stage in the formation of ancient Roman law. The Muslim law is however - in a sense - an heir of Middle Eastern legislation and expresses an alternative to Roman way of thinking about law. The aim is to show not only what distinguishes Roman law from the laws that precede it or its contemporaries, but what distinguishes Roman law from other possible ways of looking at laws in general. As a research hypothesis is presented the statement that the fundamental for the development of European legal culture were not so much specific Roman normative solutions, but a change in the paradigm of thinking about law: its secularization, understood as a break with divine origin or the sanctioning of law, and its professionalization, understood as the development of a specific category professional people dealing with the analysis and interpretation of law. At the end it is presented an open question why the secularization of the law happened only in Rome and why it ever happened there although in all other analyzed legal systems the connection between law and religion was never surpassed which this did not prevent the formation of a precise and sublime law, as was the case of the Islamic world.