This paper is devoted to the assumptions of the protection of combatants, prisoners of war, civilians and refugees during armed conflicts. It describes the legal regulations for the protection of combatants and prisoners of war, the norms of international law relating to the protection of civilians, and prohibited means and methods of military operations. The content of this chapter was intended to outline the legal status of persons protected in armed conflicts. The phenomenon of war is very often connected with the problem of human rights violations. Increasingly, during armed conflicts, the civilian population is disadvantaged alongside the armed forces of the fighting parties. Bearing in mind the above, international organisations have taken a number of initiatives to protect human life and health. However, a reflection arises that the legal standards in the field of international humanitarian law of armed conflicts and human rights are not properly respected during wars and armed conflicts.