Family businesses are identified in many instances as small-scale entities. However, among family businesse, there are many huge corporations, and many of the world’s best-known brands are classified as being family orientated. They generate large revenues, which play a very important role in the global economy. In Poland, several examples of well-known brands belonging to families can be found, such as Mokate, Comarch and Farmacol. The aim of the article is to present selected large Polish family businesses against the background of some of the largest family businesses globally and to determine the difference between them. The research followed an empirical approach and is based on the analysis of secondary data sources, such as Ernst & Young Family Business Yearbook report series from 2015-2017, the Global Family Business Index ranking, and studies on Polish family businesses. The analyses confirmed that many of the global largest enterprises are indeed family businesses. The importance of family businesses in the economy is evident by the fact that in 2015, enterprises from the Global Family Business Index generated revenues higher than the GDP of most countries in the world. None of the large Polish family businesses have yet found their place in the analysed ranking, but also, in Poland, family businesses play a significant role, and some of them generate revenues of several billion dollars. Familism does not prevent enterprises from achieving a significant position in the market the largest family businesses in the world play such a strong role that their success or failure may affect the condition of the entire economy. Polish family businesses are not yet included in this group, but they are constantly growing. It can, therefore, be anticipated that in a few years, Polish family businesses will have a good representation in the Global Family Business Index and will help to ensure sustainable development of the Polish economy.
This comparative study explores the contribution of non-financial services, namely, micro training and social capital towards women micro enterprise sustainability in Pakistan and Malaysia, specifically focusing on women, the vulnerable section of the society. Because of gender discrimination, women micro enterprise sustainability is relatively low, and thus, has lower contribution to economy in Pakistan and Malaysia (20% to 25%). The moderating role of environmental disaster is considered in this cross-sectional research. The responses were gathered from females working micro enterprises through survey questionnaire while data was analyzed through SmartPLS 3. Results revealed that environmental disaster has significant impact on women micro enterprise sustainability in Pakistan and Malaysia. Micro training also is evident to have statistically significant impact on women micro enterprise sustainability in both countries. Interestingly, social capital has significant impact on women enterprise sustainability in Malaysia while non-significant in Pakistan. Lastly, environmental disaster has significant moderating role between micro training and women micro enterprise sustainability in Pakistan and Malaysia. This study is a pioneer to investigate women micro enterprise sustainability in cross-cultural manner while including environmental disaster’s moderating role. Thus, this study assists the governments of Pakistan and Malaysia along with the practitioners to enhance understanding and implement strategies to boost women micro enterprise sustainability.
Transport biofuels are currently the fastest growing bioenergy sectors even they represent around 3–4% of total road transport fuel and only 6% of total bioenergy consumption today. Low oil prices and poor margins continue to challenge biofuel producers in Europe. Under current market conditions it is unlikely that the 7% cap will be reached in the EU by 2020. Since the past ten years, production of biodiesel from waste and animal fats has taken off, while the commercialization of cellulosic ethanol is lagging behind compared to former targets. Co-products are supposed to be credited with the area of cropland required to produce the amount of feed they substitute. If co-products are taken into account, the net use of land and feedstocks declines. Most existing biofuel regulations significantly undervalue the contribution of co-products when assessing the net land use and GHG impacts of biofuel production. Long-term transport shares are the most challenging to project because the range of possible vehicle technologies and fuel types in the future is very broad and future oil prices are uncertain. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels has slowed down and sustainability criteria have been established regarding the use of land and the mitigation of environmental impacts caused by biofuel production.
Plastic bags are unusually comfortable solution for consumers (particularly if are free of charge) and constitute a sort of sign of time. However, they are also an enormous environmental challenge, because they become waste after a very short life cycle. In the world this problem had already been noticed some time ago and many states took action being aimed at limiting the use of disposable plastic carrier bags. In 2018 Poland, forced by notations of the EU directive, was also included in the group of these states. This article was devoted to discussion about a solution accepted in Poland and its contribution to the accomplishment of the concept of sustainable development. As the result of the study it can be stated that it is possible to limit the consumption of disposable plastic bags in Poland, however another fear is a fact that the first signals of the leakiness of the system and the possibility of avoiding the recycling fee already appeared.