The purpose of the research paper is to observe and analyze how the economic growth of EU countries is accompanied by growth of motorization rate and fatalities during the last decades in terms of inventory on increase of motor vehicles and accidents in road traffic in order to identify regulation of the motor insurance legislation. Research methodology is statistical analysis of economic growth and motorization rate and the accidents in the EU countries during the period of 2000–2017. In the research paper the quantitative analysis and comparison method are applied. Findings: research paper shows that in the EU countries with higher income level, the rate of increase in motor vehicles is lower than the decline in fatalities per motor vehicle, and in countries with low income level the rate of increase in motor vehicles is higher than the decline in fatalities per motor vehicle. Practical implications: research paper demonstrates road traffic authorities need to know these specificities and take this into account in preparation of legislation to strengthen EU rules on motor insurance to better protect victims of motor vehicle accidentsOriginality – paper analyses the relationship between motorization levels and fatalities of different EU countries during last decades.
Public procurement as a system of procedures for purchasing goods and services is quite complex. Especially having in mind international legal regulation and high requirements for the assurance of such principles as transparency, fair competition, non-discrimination, mutual recognition, proportionality. Thus from the other side of the issue, in special fields as defence and national security, it is not always possible to strictly observe the mentioned rules. Institutions in a state, which is facing threats, must be able to flexibly; this would allow balancing the urgency and competiveness of purchasing procedures. Still such situations require clear managing system and legal regulation supporting it. In this article, the authors present the preliminary analysis of management of public procurement for defence and security via disaster management cycle theory and mostly focus on the phase of response towards certain destructive actions. The managerial aspect of the issue is supplemented by the analysis of the legal regulation, which should support managerial processes. Having in mind that in different phases of the disaster management cycle, different methods of management (requiring special legal regulation, as legitimation of such actions) should be applied, examples of two countries are presented. Lithuania as a member state of European Union is chosen to illustrate the reflections of managerial processes in legal acts, which are passed in the phases of mitigation and preparedness. Ukrainian example is presented to illustrate the difficulties, which state may face, when managerial processes as well as legitimation thereof in legal regulations are developed in the phase of response. To answer these questions, literature review, comparison, analyses of documents, synthesis and other methods were used. It is concluded that the public procurement processes definitely should be prepared in advance and every state should be ready for the urgent purchases before the direct threats for security appears. Ukrainian example shows, how it is difficult, costly and requiring other efforts to develop these processes and implement it in the same time. It should be mentioned that raised questions are in the constant process of learning and this article should be considered as a primary steps towards deep analysis of the continuity of state actions in the situations of real threats and tensions, which Europe is facing today.
The paper analyzes the negotiator’s position reasoning techniques and their relations in terms of sustainability. In negotiations takes part at least two sides trying to achieve a common purpose and understanding. Each negotiator has to base on their position in one way or another and to convince the opponent. Although the forms and channels of communication in this century is improving very rapidly, but the immediate value of real business meetings and negotiations remains very important. The most important and critical negotiating agreements are still going on and meetings face to face will go for a long time. Chat is one of the best and most acceptable ways to convince someone in validity of his position, that he would agree with the opponent‘s position and will adopt it or maintain. For reasoning the negotiator’s position are used following techniques: evidence, reasoning, counter reasoning, manipulation, persuasion, suggestion. This paper gives an overview of these techniques, their fundamental characteristics, features and logical relations from the view point of sustainability.