The purpose of this article is to fulfil a comparative study of national security legislation, as well as the formation of conceptual foundation for its development and the elaboration of proposals for the improvement thereof with regard to Ukraine. The article analyses in comparative aspect the practice of the Republic of Lithuania as one of the European countries. In the context of globalization, the research focuses on international legal systems of both international and regional levels. The comparative legal analysis of the legal measures to maintain national security revealed similarities in theoretical and methodological approaches. In the study, the author’s definition of national security is given; and a typological model of the concept of national security is formed.
Public procurement as a system of procedures for purchasing goods and services is quite complex. Especially having in mind international legal regulation and high requirements for the assurance of such principles as transparency, fair competition, non-discrimination, mutual recognition, proportionality. Thus from the other side of the issue, in special fields as defence and national security, it is not always possible to strictly observe the mentioned rules. Institutions in a state, which is facing threats, must be able to flexibly; this would allow balancing the urgency and competiveness of purchasing procedures. Still such situations require clear managing system and legal regulation supporting it. In this article, the authors present the preliminary analysis of management of public procurement for defence and security via disaster management cycle theory and mostly focus on the phase of response towards certain destructive actions. The managerial aspect of the issue is supplemented by the analysis of the legal regulation, which should support managerial processes. Having in mind that in different phases of the disaster management cycle, different methods of management (requiring special legal regulation, as legitimation of such actions) should be applied, examples of two countries are presented. Lithuania as a member state of European Union is chosen to illustrate the reflections of managerial processes in legal acts, which are passed in the phases of mitigation and preparedness. Ukrainian example is presented to illustrate the difficulties, which state may face, when managerial processes as well as legitimation thereof in legal regulations are developed in the phase of response. To answer these questions, literature review, comparison, analyses of documents, synthesis and other methods were used. It is concluded that the public procurement processes definitely should be prepared in advance and every state should be ready for the urgent purchases before the direct threats for security appears. Ukrainian example shows, how it is difficult, costly and requiring other efforts to develop these processes and implement it in the same time. It should be mentioned that raised questions are in the constant process of learning and this article should be considered as a primary steps towards deep analysis of the continuity of state actions in the situations of real threats and tensions, which Europe is facing today.
Various types of calamities determine greater political attention to disaster management, but permanent efficient functionality of this sphere has to be the priority of the state as the guarantor of fundamental obligations to its citizens. Legal regulation sets fundations for functioning of certain system of institutions and processes, which intend to ensure proper disaster management. The article analyses theoretical aspects of disaster management in the context of public sector modernization with the distinction of traditional public administration, New Public Management, New Public Governance and Neo - Weberianism. The focus is on the acceptability of different models of public sector to disaster management. In the first part of the article, the attention is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of traditional public administration to disaster management. The second part of the article reviews the significance of the reform and the practical implications of the principles of New Public Management to disaster management. The third part of the article analyses the significance of New Public Governance discourse to disaster management and the fourth part defines the newest theoretical aspects of public administration Neo-Weberian model and its significance to increasing the efficiency of disaster management system is evaluated.
Sustainable development and efficiency of public sector remain priority of governments. Hence, governments are concerned with assessment, plan and measure of functions performed by public institutions. However, various problems related to the methodology of functional review are indicated. The paper aims to develop the model appropriate for the planning and execution of functional reviews in public institutions. The research is based on the method of systemic analysis what let us carry out comparative analysis and synthesis of prevailing models developed by different scholars and practitioners. Suggested model contributes to sustainable development of public institutions by providing consistent guidelines relevant for various stakeholders.
The quality of the public sector activity may have crucial influence on the social economic status of the state. In order to make public sector efficient, stimulate its contribution into the social economic development of the state, it is rational to apply a management tool which has been tested and proven in business practice – the strategic planning possibilities of realising whose principles are higher if the method of functional review is applied. In order to create a model of effective functional review, it is first of all expedient to fulfil these objectives: to reveal the role of functional review of institutions, to analyse its principles, to show what kind of functional review practice we have in state institutions, to define the directions and preconditions for improving functional review of institutions. This article presents the results of fulfilling such objectives which were received with the help of systematic analysis that allowed to perform a synthesis of the results achieved through research of different spectrum.
Arguably World War II had a fundamental and profound impact on the Western culture, practices and institutions. One central feature of this impact was the disillusionment with the capacity of social sciences to help policymakers improve society. The past 60 or so years have seen a major crisis of identity throughout the disciplines of social science. On one hand, positivism stood on the premise that the war was a result of irrational and pseudoscientific totalitarian social theories; on the other hand, post-modernist (and various other “postisms”) raised doubts about the possibility of social science being something more than just another variation of totalitarian ideology. This polarization has seen animated polemic and methodological confrontation with seemingly no victors. As a result, social science as a whole lost its reputation as a credible source of knowledge for successful action. A strand of social science reformers in various disciplines are trying to build alternative definitions of what social science ought to constitute which would accommodate claims of both warring sides. However, persuasive as these integrative attempts may be, such ideas are having a hard time of becoming the mainstream of social science. By borrowing from institutionalist perspectives, this paper constructs an argument that the reason for the lack of relevance of social science in business and policy is not so much a methodological weakness of the science as it is the incompatibility of institutionalized interest between business and the academe.