This paper examines the impact of a context indicator of integrated order, such as ways of organising one’s life in old age, on social security issues. In the framework of ageing society it concerns the problems of socio-demographic determinants of life choices in old age, which are of the key importance for the sense of social security. Authors explore the results of the research on the representative sample of 1006 adult Poles, which has been carried out using the quantitative method - the diagnostic survey based on a questionnaire survey technique- in 2020. The preferred ways of organising one’s life in old age were measured in five areas on the basis of the proprietary six-point nominal scale. The applied methodology helped to explore the preferences of the adult Poles regarding the forms of one’s life organisation in old age and to study the determinants of the choices made. The analysis used contingency coefficients - V- Cramer and Phi - to determine the strength of the relationship between the nominal variables assigned to the social security areas under study. The Chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between the studied areas of social security and age groups. The sociological approach in measuring the selected context indicator of integrated order in the sustainable development paradigm has been strongly emphasised by authors. The findings suggest that ways of organising one’s life in old age are key factors for the sustainability of social security in ageing societies.
This comparative study explores the contribution of non-financial services, namely, micro training and social capital towards women micro enterprise sustainability in Pakistan and Malaysia, specifically focusing on women, the vulnerable section of the society. Because of gender discrimination, women micro enterprise sustainability is relatively low, and thus, has lower contribution to economy in Pakistan and Malaysia (20% to 25%). The moderating role of environmental disaster is considered in this cross-sectional research. The responses were gathered from females working micro enterprises through survey questionnaire while data was analyzed through SmartPLS 3. Results revealed that environmental disaster has significant impact on women micro enterprise sustainability in Pakistan and Malaysia. Micro training also is evident to have statistically significant impact on women micro enterprise sustainability in both countries. Interestingly, social capital has significant impact on women enterprise sustainability in Malaysia while non-significant in Pakistan. Lastly, environmental disaster has significant moderating role between micro training and women micro enterprise sustainability in Pakistan and Malaysia. This study is a pioneer to investigate women micro enterprise sustainability in cross-cultural manner while including environmental disaster’s moderating role. Thus, this study assists the governments of Pakistan and Malaysia along with the practitioners to enhance understanding and implement strategies to boost women micro enterprise sustainability.