Transport biofuels are currently the fastest growing bioenergy sectors even they represent around 3–4% of total road transport fuel and only 6% of total bioenergy consumption today. Low oil prices and poor margins continue to challenge biofuel producers in Europe. Under current market conditions it is unlikely that the 7% cap will be reached in the EU by 2020. Since the past ten years, production of biodiesel from waste and animal fats has taken off, while the commercialization of cellulosic ethanol is lagging behind compared to former targets. Co-products are supposed to be credited with the area of cropland required to produce the amount of feed they substitute. If co-products are taken into account, the net use of land and feedstocks declines. Most existing biofuel regulations significantly undervalue the contribution of co-products when assessing the net land use and GHG impacts of biofuel production. Long-term transport shares are the most challenging to project because the range of possible vehicle technologies and fuel types in the future is very broad and future oil prices are uncertain. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels has slowed down and sustainability criteria have been established regarding the use of land and the mitigation of environmental impacts caused by biofuel production.
Our paper is dealing with the issues of energy security and economic development. Our focus is on the changes and challenges that are posed in front of the many countries with regard to the threat of the shortages of energy sources and the depletion of the existing carbon sources. Economic, social and demographic changes in the world call for the novel solutions that would include innovative ways how to secure the smooth and undisrupted flow of energy for maintaining the daily lives of the citizens. We are particularly interested in showing how the integration of energy systems or the coordination between neighboring energy systems might contribute to the sustainable development and operation of the energy sector. The paper uses an example of hydro energy storage in order to show the shortcomings of the battery energy storage and the ways how it can be solved. Our results and findings show that renewable energy sources might become a viable solution to the problems specified above. Well-balanced and well-placed usage of renewables might cushion the shortcomings of the traditional energy systems and prevent major shocks to the energy security through the world and in the European Union countries.
Our paper tackles the issue of the European energy security and economic growth. Specifically, it evaluates the relationship between natural gas consumption and economic growth in the European Union (EU). Channels along which natural gas is supplied to the EU energy markets yield dependence from the Russian Federation which presents a threat to the European energy security. Our sample includes panel time series data over the period from 1997 to 2011 for a 26 EU countries. Based on neoclassical growth model, we create a multivariate model including gross fixed capital formation and total labor forces of a country as additional explanatory variables. Using panel cointegration tests, we found that there exists a long-run relationship between economic growth, natural gas consumption, labor and capital. In the short-run there is bidirectional causality between natural gas consumption and economic growth. The causality running from economic growth to natural gas consumption is positive. On the other hand, the causality, which runs from natural gas consumption to economic growth, is negative.
This study consists of two research aspects. First of all, the author analyses the relationship of energy consumption and economic growth in the context of 13 selected countries in the period of year between 1990 and 2010. Secondly, using statistical techniques the paper takes into account cross-sectoral dependence when analyzing the relationship between energy consumption and economic structures of the same countries. Based on the energy consumption, the countries are divided into three groups: low energy consumption group, middle energy consumption group, and high energy consumption one. Statistical methods, including correlation analysis are employed for the estimation of the structural changes of economy and relationship between energy consumption and economic structure in each of the three groups. In general, the results of this study indicate that energy consumption is closely related to all economic activities for all groups of countries; however the case of Lithuania reveals the absence of relationship between energy consumption and industrial sector. Moreover, in the context of comparative analysis, China, as a high energy consumption country, has a completely different picture of economic structure as well as relation between energy consumption and structural changes. Economic sectors, such as industry, services and agriculture depend on energy resources, but in different degree in these three groups of countries.
Economic growth and country’s industry dependence on the assessment of energetic resources arise as comprehensive approach. The increase in global energy prices, significant dependence on imported energy and increase in energy consumption might result international competitiveness of the country and pose constrains towards sustainable development. Restructuring of the economies from energy intensive industries towards more technologically advanced products and services might lead to higher value added per unit of product, and energy saving sectors with lower energy consumption per unit of output. In order to sustain international competitiveness of exporting sectors, it is necessary to diminish gradually intensity of expensive energy resources. The problem of this study related to the scientific discussion concerning relationships among the intensity of energetic resources’ use, economic growth and export. The analysis of the theoretical and empirical studies of the effects of energy on the economic growth and export showed that energetic resources precede and predict the economic growth and export, however, the question concerning the direction of causality remains open, since unobserved variables may drive both developments. This paper analyzes the case of Lithuania. The authors investigate economic growth and industry sectors’ export dependence on energetic resources.