This paper is partly devoted to defining economic warfare and its position in the system of international relations. The role of economic warfare in shaping internal and external policies of s country is described in selected examples using the historical-logical method. The article provides a typology of the elements of trade warfare. Based on the analysis of selected determinants, the latest facts of trade warfare after the year 2015 are analysed. The treatise concludes: a trade war in one sector of the economy may spread into other sectors, whereas economic warfare is a priori waged against an economy.
Globalization as a modern process is accelerating in the whole world, and this process contributes to both -progress and various negative phenomena in society. One of these negative phenomena is transnational criminality, which is increasingly impacting also Latvia. For that reason, this problem is investigated in this paper, in order to understand how the Latvian state may take advantage of the potential of globalization to reduce the consequences of this globalization, which become apparent in the form of transnational criminality. This paper analyses a number of concepts related to the research area, such as „globalization”, „transnational crime/ criminality” and others. The discussion about the impact of globalization on immigration and how it affects the transnational criminality is also one of the issues of his paper. The purpose of this paper is also to investigate the impact of globalization on drug-related crimes, as well as the issues of prevention of these crimes in relation to the Republic of Latvia under the influence of modern globalization. The paper explores the potential for international cooperation in the fight against transnational criminality, as well as deals with ways of further improvement of this transnational cooperation to make it more effective in reducing of transnational criminality. The above mentioned paper could serve as a theoretical insight into various problems, which the law enforcement bodies have in practice, when they have to deal with different aspects of transnational criminality. This paper also explores the problems that may arise when the officers of these institutions have to cooperate internationally in detecting transnational organized crimes and, thereby, to learn from this cooperation, so that this international cooperation between the law enforcement institutions of Latvia and other countries will ensure more better results in the future.
Relevance: With the increase of permeability of borders, in the conditions of active political interaction between regions, it became regular to witness appearance of many transnational companies (TNC) and metacorporations differing in forms of management and organizational connections. Where in the case of transnational companies we can most often observe trade expansion with the pushing out of the competitors working on the local market, the pattern more characteristic of metacorporations is merger and acquisition (MAA) where the management of the holding (as a rule) signs contracts with local manufacturers increasing their production capacity at the expense of local productions and businesses. The aim of this paper is to track the dynamics of international business development in the conditions of globalization and find out which regions and spheres of business are currently considered the most preferable for foreign investment. The results gained can be used in planning of perspective outlet markets and in search of new collaboration objects. The novelty of this paper lies in the observed character of interdependence of national economies and redistribution of investment flows between regions. The conclusions were made, that foreign investment flows (FIF) significantly influence the development of business inside the country: businesses with foreign capital receive a number of benefits compared to local companies.
In the epoch when terrorism and other serious crimes are cross-border problem, both the European Union and its Member States are responsible to their citizens for full ensuring of area of their internal security. Criminal offences against property or property crimes endanger the property of individuals and legal entities, as well as jeopardize their property interests. Consequently, the property rights, which are jeopardized by the crimes, are guaranteed by the State and are ensured by the Law Enforcement Authorities. Quantitatively, the largest group of criminal offences is composed by the crimes that can only be done on purpose of greediness, and most of them express themselves as the unlawful expropriation of the unfamiliar property from the lawful possession, in order to deal with that asset as their own. Such crimes are theft, robbery, extortion, fraud, and they together form more than half of all offences committed. For their research, the authors of the article have chosen the crimes with high public hazard degree from the offences against property. These offences are most of all affected by the globalization processes in the world, and they are: crimes related to a transport vehicle as a threat object; thefts from cultural objects where the objects of danger are churches or religious articles; modern frauds, when during their realization modern technical tools and new technologies are used. During the research, the co-author of the article – Prof. Dr. Jānis Ivančiks, has deceased suddenly. However, the years of joint work, discussions and scientific disputes, that accompanied the writing of this article and other written works allow co-authors to maintain the position and scientific views of this outstanding scientist in the field of forensic investigations and operational activities of special divisions. The authors show in this work the creative activity in the field of legal norms which affect personal property of individuals and their feeling, when the lawmakers eliminate the unnecessary rules, create new or improve existing ones in accordance with the country’s political, economic situation and globalization processes.
The theoretical and methodological principles of researching the tax security of a state were substantiated with the emphasis placed on the two basic economic theories: the social choice theory and the reflectivity theory. The differential features of national tax systems under globalization conditions and their impact on the economic security of the countries that differ in the political regime, the level of economic development, geography and location were identified. There was given the assessment of the cross-sector approach, based on which multifactor effective marginal tax rates in the European Union (EU) are calculated, and of the marginal approach to taxation in general. The analytical study of tax security of the countries of Organization of economic cooperation and development (OECD) was carried out based on the assessment of the specific weight of taxes in gross domestic product, as well as the structure of taxes in the context of taxation objects: income individuals, income corporates, social security contributions, property, value added taxes, other consumption taxes. A particular attention is attached to the problems of taxation of the motion of capital and goods between the EU countries within the framework of ensuring the mutual economic benefits of the collective interests. The assessment of external and internal threats to tax security of Ukraine was performed based on the identification of the shadow economy segment, reasons for its emergence and consequences for the national economy, as well as the dynamics of the absolute and relative indicators of the budget-debt security. The recommendations on strengthening the tax security of Ukraine under the European integration conditions were given.
The phenomenon of globalization is wide, changeable and versatile. Therefore, there are a lot of different and contradictory opionins about its historical nature, driving motives and assessment of its influence on the various spheres of the social life. As it is widely known, globalization is the integrity of the processes having place in the world, inspiring people to acquire the common quality and character and draw near each other. The problem of its influence especially on the small countries doesn’t lose its topicality even today. Facts, when after the global integration a country with a small and open economics improves its economic conditions and becomes active on the international stage, due to the development of the communication and education systems, is a reflection of the fact, that globalization has a positive impact on such countries and helps them not to lag behind the world progress.
Driving factors and implications of foreign direct investments were widely discussed during the latest decade. Anyway, impression remains that due to the specifics of that type of investment, misinterpreting of their economic composition is rather frequent than rare. Hence, the paper starts with detailed classification of investment types. The next part of the paper is devoted to a review of approaches to FDI driving factors and outcomes. Finally, current trends of foreign capital flows in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia are being observed and evaluated. Novel insights about new consistent patterns of foreign capital directions are being provided. The paper is being finalized by indicating contemporary implications of FDI withdrawal for host country related to its further secure and sustainable development.
The article highlights the importance of the development of the society, as well as the measurement of this development, in the context of security, sustainability and competitiveness and goes much further by guiding to further research focus on the introduced new conception of “Secure and sustainable competitiveness” in the context of globalisation. The definition of “Sustainable competitiveness” was broadened by including new aspect of security. The development of the society was introduced as common output of the globalization which goes hand-in-hand with competitiveness, sustainability and security. The interrelation of certain facets between security, competitiveness and sustainability lead to the proposal to create the new index of “Secure and sustainable competitiveness” with possibility to evaluate the progress by looking back and provide prospects by looking forward. The research findings are in line with policy context and the development of the new index of “Secure and sustainable competitiveness” could be an important research contribution to the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth (2010).
Security and sustainability conception analysis is being provided in the paper. The conceptions of security and sustainability have been selected due to their significance for contemporary globalized world’s issues. Initially, the perceptions encompassing even ancient times are being elaborated. Onward, with an intention to get a more sophisticated view of above mentioned expressions, relevant scientific literature has been critically reviewed accentuating to the dimensions of those two phenomena. The following common dimensions could be proposed: social, economic, environmental. The implication could be stated - security conception provides not only those three dimensions some other important dimensions could be distinguished as well. One more important finding composes the perception of dimensions interactions to analyzed conceptions. Some important implications are being provided in the paper, which elevate the significance of security to sustainability for today’s globalized society - security can be proposed as expression with ponderable value, while sustainability gains this power only with “sustainable development” phenomenon.