Due to the geopolitical situation, the scarcity of raw materials, the foreign policy actions of the major powers, the excessive use of resources worldwide and the struggle for them, as well as the inequalities caused by the demographic explosion of developing countries, europe and thus Hungary from the wider Middle East region have been under considerable migratory pressure for a long time, and this has increased further in 2021 on the basis of statistical data. (Frontex). Europe is trying to provide more answers to the problem. It is trying to keep refugees as far away as possible by developing and improving living conditions in the countries where migration flows originate, as well as by establishing migration zones beyond the EU’s borders and financing them, because these problems need to start to be addressed and solved at local level. Despite all this, refugees are constantly reaching Europe, and unfortunately among them are not only those who fear for their lives and lose everything, fleeing war, but also economic migrants who join the wave of migration and are probably members of organisations that pose a threat to European values and public security. (Kotzur, Moya, Sözen, Romano 2020). By building physical border closures, several EU countries have closed certain migration routes, but this has not eliminated the problem, only the routes have been reorthled. The registration and clear identification of immigrants in the attempt to cross the border and their identification within the EU pose a number of unresolved problems for the authorities. (Beňuška, T., Nečas, 2021). We are reviewing and comparing the methods of identification used in border policing with modern biometric identification methods in order to draw attention to the fact that technology has long been ready to be used to protect our security in the service of European values and security. But at the same time, a significant deterrent is the difficult transition from entrenched solutions to the fear of misuse of biometric data. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to consider trade-offs in use and technology and to think more effectively together at EU level as a common solution on the regulatory side. (EU Regulation 399/2016).
Our paper focuses on the issues of food security and agricultural trade. Specifically, we tackle the issue of economic selfsufficiency of a country using an example of the import ban on agricultural production as one form of economic sanctions. Our paper attempts to estimate the impact of sanctions in separate regions, rather then on the aggregate country level. We propose an original methodology of estimating allocation of import ban effects based on the OECD Customer Support Estimate (CSE). Our results demonstrate that in case of some agricultural products (e.g. potatoes) consumers in most of Russian regions were net beneficiaries before 2014, but the magnitude of the benefits decreased significantly after the introduction of sanctions. This provided Russian agricultural producers with more support arising from the market price differential. All in all, we find no significant evidence of the import ban impact, however after 2014 the cumulative cost paid by consumers in different regions declined significantly due to other factors, leaving consumers in the position of net beneficiaries. Our results demonstrate that despite the economic sanctions are important, they do not affect food security of neither of conflicting parties.
The article reviews standards of state policies in terms of the national security of the European Union countries. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of the theory and practice of providing national security in the EU countries. In addition to that, the article provides for a deep analysis of the major methodological approaches in regards to establishing national security in the EU. The authors make a systematic review of the development and implementation of the EU security doctrines. The aim of this research article is to analyze the development of the idea of developing a European defense policy to find an effective way of incorporating our state into European security structures. Also, the research question may be posed as discussion on the way the national security is guaranteed in the EU countries. The novelty of the study is in the way how the past, current and future national security setup is implemented in the EU countries and what may the ways of its development. Materials and methods used in studying this problem, researches and publications of such domestic and foreign researchers were used. At the same time, processes of global and European security need constant analysis and study. The results showed that the problem of the formation of the European security and defense system that emerged shortly after the end of the Second World War prompted European countries to work more closely together, particularly in the defense sector. After the Cold War and the emergence of new challenges for stability on the continent, the EU has embarked on a path towards greater consolidation and greater awareness of own defense and security interests. Conclusion of the article is that an analysis of the approaches to the national security in the EU convincingly demonstrates that the level of security depends on many factors. The successful provision of national security strategy and approach depends on the sustainability and strength of their national economies. Only a strong economy allows successfully defending national interests in growing global competition and world economic disparities. Therefore, a country shall not only develop a national security concept, relying on world experience, but, above all, to reform its domestic and foreign policies with a view to protecting all actors.
In 2010s, the mainstream academic debate slowly but surely shifted towards European Union’s internal crisis and the possibility of its disintegration. United Kingdom applying to exit the Union in 2017 is the most recent and arguably the strongest indicator of such possibility. “Brexit” (as this process was dubbed) provides an interesting testing ground for latent European disintegration theories proposed by some political scientists. As the withdrawal negotiations have just started, one can only raise causal arguments for the future (if..., then); therefore this article employs scenario-building methodology recently established in political science with an aim to develop a set of scenarios of possible UK-EU relationship after Brexit. Four driving forces are cross-combined: (1) U.S. involvement in European security matters and bilateral relations with UK, (2) German leadership of the integrationist projects within the EU, (3) activism of the European Commission and the European Court of Justice, and (4) the stability of current minority cabinet in UK under Prime Minister May. The three scenarios that logically follow are: (1) UK as member of a nascent European security and defence union, (2) UK’s return to the EU, and (3) UK as an independent power in an “anglobal” world. Rarely, however, do any scenarios composed by political scientists ever materialize in full and a mix of all three scenarios is most likely to come to pass over the course of the next five years or so.
This paper has aimed to explore the inter-linkages of economic growth, poverty and inequality in the context of the European Union (EU) countries during the period of 2005 – 2016. Descriptive statistics analysis and econometric methods have been applied for this purpose. Research results have revealed statistically significant interrelationships between growth and poverty in half of the European Union countries. Moreover, in majority of these countries poverty has been elastic of economic growth. It should be noted, that the countries with higher level of economic development have relatively smaller share of population living below the national poverty lines. However, we cannot say the same about the growth – inequality relationships, which have varied across the EU countries. There are economically strong countries with relatively high income inequality and economically weaker countries with lower income distribution coefficients. However, in many cases poverty and income inequality tend to move in the same direction, i.e. as one increases, the other as well and vice versa. Finally, the insights of the research could be useful in developing a common strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth and achieving the goals for Europe 2020.
Throughout the history of mankind, energy security has been always seen as a means of protection from disruptions of essential energy systems. The idea of protection from disorders emerged from the process of securing political and military control over energy resources to set up policies and measures on managing risks that affect all elements of energy systems. The various systems placed in a place to achieve energy security are the driving force towards the energy innovations or emerging trends in the energy sector.
Our paper discusses energy security status and innovations in the energy sector in European Union (EU). We analyze the recent up-to-date developments of the energy policy and exploitation of energy sources, as well as scrutinize the channels of energy streaming to the EU countries and the risks associated with this energy import. Moreover, we argue that the shift to the low-carbon production of energy and the massive deployment of renewable energy sources (RES) might become the key issue in ensuring the energy security and independency of the EU from its external energy supplies. Both RES, distributed energy resources (DER) and “green energy” that will be based on the energy efficiency and the shift to the alternative energy supply might change the energy security status quo for the EU.
Our paper is dealing with the issues of energy security and economic development. Our focus is on the changes and challenges that are posed in front of the many countries with regard to the threat of the shortages of energy sources and the depletion of the existing carbon sources. Economic, social and demographic changes in the world call for the novel solutions that would include innovative ways how to secure the smooth and undisrupted flow of energy for maintaining the daily lives of the citizens. We are particularly interested in showing how the integration of energy systems or the coordination between neighboring energy systems might contribute to the sustainable development and operation of the energy sector. The paper uses an example of hydro energy storage in order to show the shortcomings of the battery energy storage and the ways how it can be solved. Our results and findings show that renewable energy sources might become a viable solution to the problems specified above. Well-balanced and well-placed usage of renewables might cushion the shortcomings of the traditional energy systems and prevent major shocks to the energy security through the world and in the European Union countries.
Ensuring the defence of freedom, independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, and population belongs to the main tasks of each state. Therefore, countries, in response to the current political, security and economic situation, must earmark, within the framework of their national budgets, a proportion of the available resources to ensure their defence. The aim of the article, based on current trends in the defence budgets of the European Union member states, is point out that not only the global economic and financial crisis and the credit and debt crisis in the euro area have a significant negative impact on the amount of resources, which individual European Union member states earmark to ensure their defence.
Security and competitiveness are two very important aspects of the economic and political development of every country. In the 21st century, one of the key drivers of most economies in countries throughout the world is energy. Different countries adopt different measures so as to ensure their security and competitiveness through the effective energy policies that make traditional and renewable resources adequately available hence eliminating the possibilities of shortages. Our paper takes up the case study of Germany as one of the wealthiest and most developed economies in the European Union which also occupies the first positions in the charts of energy uptake and consumption. German policy-makers realize its vulnerability when it comes to energy security and attempt to diversify its energy competitiveness using the renewable sources of energy (for instance via the adoption of the Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz or the “Renewable Energy Act” (EEG)). We analyze the issues of energy security and competitiveness of a country using an example of Germany. Moreover, we describe what challenges the renewable energy sources (RES) might bring into the conventional game and how this might influence the competitiveness and security.
Our paper aims at analysing and assessing sustainable housing policy and social security in selected countries of the European Union with a special focus on housing policy which largerly depends on the family support and family policy of the EU Member States. Family policy and family support allow young families to acquire their own housing and therefore represent a key element in the bundle of the social-oriented state policies.
The paper describes the historical development of housing policy and security as well as provides comprehensive analyses of the existing housing policy instruments. Moreover, it focuses on the standard of living and various legal aspects of the social policy in the post-Communist countries using the case study of the Czech Republic. The analysis is done through the comparison of the state-of-the-art in the Czech Republic to the wealthier and more developed EU Member States represented by Germany and United Kingdom. We find that in all countries in question housing is of good quality but each country stands out with its own specifics that are dependent on the economic and social situation. Moreover, we find that the EU membership plays an important role in the formation and development of social policy and housing policy.