The elementary interest of every country is to maintain its inner security and stability. To achieve this goal the state must restrict within legal frameworks some fundamental rights of its own citizens. One of these fundamental rights is the right to privacy that can be breached only under certain circumstances. It is easy to see that it is unacceptable for a state not to control within the legal frameworks the communication of its own citizens so they can commit crimes, run terrorist rings, or spy rings or establish drug cartels without any consequences. Of course, the control over the communication is not the only means of the successful investigation but undeniably a vital one. That is why the Janus faced nature of the Dark Web is a real security risk nowadays. Although this new medium is the fruit of the last two decades its presence today is stronger than ever before and its popularity is growing day by day. Its most important features are anonymity, hidden geolocation and freedom from censorship. The Dark Web is very useful when it provides anonymity for political dissidents and whistleblowers, but is very harmful when it provides the same features for arm and drug traffickers and terrorists not to mention for pedophiles and so on. This article aims to shed some light on the effects of the Dark Web on the security and economy of the states especially in the aspects of organized crime and the terrorism.
National competitiveness is a multisided concept that includes a system of indexes, indicators, criteria, conditions and factors of development, mechanisms of its improvement. Competitiveness consists of a number of components that supplement each other and ensure steady economic growth, improving the welfare of the population. These are: science and education, innovation and investments, various infrastructure, real economy sector, small business, various services, natural and human resources. The objective of necessity to perform reforms at the regional level and the natural increase of the role of the regions in reforming the economy are predetermined by the fact that the ability of state bodies, ministries and departments to influence the course of reforms is gradually limited, and the new market mechanism is not working enough effectively yet. This shows the necessity of determination of the role and place of the region in the economic space, its potential possibilities and development prospects.
International fiscal regulation of transfer pricing solves important taxation problems of company groups to ensure fair distribution of the taxation base between different jurisdictions and in one country. The alternative to the arm’s length principle for similar problems is a concept of formulary apportionment approach. The need to solve such problems is pressing for the Russian consolidated tax groups too, primarily in the technology and capital-intensive industries. Russian Federation’s seven-year experience of creating the consolidated tax groups based on the formulary apportionment approach can be of interest to the specialists in any country researching such issues, because the government has acknowledged the current Russian system ineffective. Economic approach to formation of a sectorial cashgenerating unit grouped according to economically integrated businesses and an investor control concept over an investment facility is the basis of our research. Practical calculations were done for the current consolidated tax group, confirming the advantages of this approach for fair distribution of the taxation base for the technology and capital-intensive industries. We have drawn executives’ attention to the solutions enhancing investment attractiveness of the tax groups in conditions of restricted access to information for external users in the IFRS reports of a group.
Currently, it has become generally accepted in the leading countries of the world to consider human capital as the basis of the state, society and the economy. In the modern post-industrial society of the leading states of the world, the life and creative potential, human abilities are the core of all socio-economic processes, this is especially relevant in the context of the globalization of the world economy and the free flow of any capital, including human capital, both inter- and in-country. Meanwhile, in Kazakhstan, human capital is perceived as something burdensome and unnecessary. In Kazakhstan society, it is still not customary to talk about the priority of the quality of human capital in the process of creating products. Separate studies of recent years unequivocally indicate that Kazakhstan as a whole and Kazakhstani enterprises in particular will soon face serious difficulties in the area of human resources. Managers of enterprises, both in the public and private sectors, relate to the creation of conditions for the development of the human capital of their employees as a waste of time and money. Such a position essentially reflects not only the low level of management culture, but also strategic mistakes in doing business in Kazakhstan. On this basis, for Kazakhstan, the trends in the development of human capital are of undoubted interest and have practical significance.
In recent years, tourism businesses have had to face rapid changes brought about by modernisation, internationalisation, social changes, and the higher demands of tourists. These features have an impact on the current level of tourism services and determine the overall economic environment on the supply and demand side. To keep up with global and national competition and these new emerging processes, it is important for managers to discover and monitor how key global figures can have an impact on the future development of tourism units in the hopes to achieve further sustainability growth. Managers should adapt to the changing environment by using new methods and strategies that make tourism units sustainable for future generations. One of the main indicators measuring economic sustainability is gross domestic product, as it captures the market value of the measured services or goods in general. For this reason, it is worthwhile to determine what the interconnections with regard to gross domestic product and tourism variable are. Through this relationship, it is possible to evaluate the health of a certain economy of tourism that can serve as a viewpoint for the management of tourism businesses in a certain state. This research looks at the relationship between the chosen indicators from the tourism sectors of the Czech Republic and Norway. Its purpose is to identify the relationship between the chosen general economic indicators measuring tourism economic prosperity, such as overall gross domestic product for international travel expenditures within a 7-year period. The main aim of the research is to determine the relationship between the chosen indicators through comparison and trend analysis. The data will be examined in order to determine the relationship between the chosen variables, as well as the strength of the dependence of both variables. Based on these findings, further research may use gross domestic product as one of the crucial indicators for the measurement of economic sustainability with respect to its added value for tourism businesses and management.
In this article assumption is being made that economic structure of economy affects economic security of a country. The main exported goods of Kazakhstan for the period 2000-2015 is the commodity group “Mineral products”, which accounts for no less than 65.8% of total exports of Kazakhstan. And in Kazakhstan’s economy is currently experiencing a clear decline due to the instability and decline in world oil prices. One solution to the government of Kazakhstan has chosen the conduct of the national currency devaluation in February 2014 and August 2015. Down conjuncture of oil prices since 2014 has ceased to be favorable, and in Kazakhstan, only 5% of the oil sold in the domestic market and almost all the oil produced in Kazakhstan is exported at a rate of 95%. In the presented paper authors consider the problem of diversification of the Kazakhstani economy, which actually depends on raw industry. The analysis of the current situation and recommendations for further reforming of economy are provided.