The article deals with the problem of future development threats based on the methodology of industry foresight. As an empirical basis for this direction of forecasting, the authors study the mining and metallurgical complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan as a leading factor in the development of the entire national economy. The study is a pilot and focuses on assessing the risks that have formed that could pose a serious threat to the development of the industry, the economy and the country as a whole in the future. Summarizing the world experience in applying the foresight methodology, the authors use it to predict the security and sustainability of development in the medium-term. Using the risk mapping method, the authors identify safety zones in the development trends of the mining and metallurgical industry. The assessment of threats and risks also highlights the leading actors that affect the development of the industry. The main risks for Kazakhstan’s mining and metallurgical enterprises are the lack or shortage of local labor and its low skills. Automation of production processes and digitalization of production are becoming the leading trends in the development of the industry. The problem of improving the quality of workforce training and mastering the necessary skills by specialists is a serious threat to the development of the industry. The authors suggest using foresight tools not only to assess risks, but also to prevent their development into future threats.
The article considers the problem of forming the vector of economic development on the principles of sustainable development and social economy. State security is based not only on successful economic development, but also on maintaining a balance of social interests. Social entrepreneurship is contrary to social stratification and confrontation in society. As an empirical basis for this direction of development, the authors explore the segment of non-profit organizations with constant income and organizations providing services in the social sphere of Kazakhstan. In the absence of an official definition of social entrepreneurship, these types of socially oriented activities most fully implement the principles of sustainable development, while at the same time forming economic and social value. The results of a sociological study reveal the microscopic extent of this phenomenon in Kazakhstan, and the overwhelming array of respondents focuses on the system of institutional support for social entrepreneurship. The authors developed recommendations on the regulatory legal status of social entrepreneurs and the main directions of their institutional support. Particular attention is paid to the development of intersectoral and intra-sectoral ties in the development of social entrepreneurship. The emphasis is on the accelerator model, as the most productive form of support, which has a network nature and is based on coordination mechanisms between the state and non-state actors. The formation of a full-fledged institutional environment will ensure the stability and progression of the economic development of socially oriented activities and create a critical mass of entities acting on the principles of sustainable development in the unity of economic and social values of social development.
In the current conditions of global competition, various regions are struggling to attract investment and human resources. The most successful are creative clusters in which a new product with increased consumer value is created. However, for the formation of creative clusters it is necessary to provide a number of conditions: tolerance, talents, technology. Tolerance implies the presence of specialists with different competencies and behaviors. A decrease in the tolerance coefficient leads not only to a risk of low susceptibility of cultural indigents from other countries, but also to a decrease in the variety of forms and ways of thinking, creative realization, selfexpression, which directly affects the country’s innovative and economic development.By the example of assessing the potential of creative clusters in Kazakhstan, it is shown that the loss of tolerance leads to a risk of a decrease in creative potential. The calculation of mathematical clustering was carried out in the STATISTICA program. The state should ensure multicultural diversity for the conditions of innovative development. By an example of assessing the potential of creative clusters in Kazakhstan, it is shown that the loss of tolerance leads to a risk of a decrease in creative potential. The state should ensure multicultural diversity for the conditions of innovative development. A decrease in tolerance directly reduces the potential for the formation of creative spaces, and is also an indicator of the risk of monocultural development, the lag of Kazakhstan in the educational, scientific and innovative spheres of the international country community.
Currently, it has become generally accepted in the leading countries of the world to consider human capital as the basis of the state, society and the economy. In the modern post-industrial society of the leading states of the world, the life and creative potential, human abilities are the core of all socio-economic processes, this is especially relevant in the context of the globalization of the world economy and the free flow of any capital, including human capital, both inter- and in-country. Meanwhile, in Kazakhstan, human capital is perceived as something burdensome and unnecessary. In Kazakhstan society, it is still not customary to talk about the priority of the quality of human capital in the process of creating products. Separate studies of recent years unequivocally indicate that Kazakhstan as a whole and Kazakhstani enterprises in particular will soon face serious difficulties in the area of human resources. Managers of enterprises, both in the public and private sectors, relate to the creation of conditions for the development of the human capital of their employees as a waste of time and money. Such a position essentially reflects not only the low level of management culture, but also strategic mistakes in doing business in Kazakhstan. On this basis, for Kazakhstan, the trends in the development of human capital are of undoubted interest and have practical significance.
The article deals with the development of one of the service sectors, which is considered an element of the economic basis of the post-industrial development stage. The author considers the main indicators of the sector growth in the most competitive OECD countries, as well as compares the main macroeconomic structural and dynamic indicators of business and professional services in the USA and Kazakhstan, which made it possible to identify the main positions of Kazakhstan’s lag. A comprehensive analysis of the dynamics and structure of the development of post-industrial services in Kazakhstan was carried out in all the significant parameters of the development of the types of services of this group that are available in domestic statistics. This made it possible to identify a group of development leaders; activities characterized by stability and a high market share, but weak dynamics; shrinking sectors. The negative trends in the development of the post-industrial services sector, determined as a result of the analysis and assessment, allow us to form a vision for further steps to develop them.