The subject of this article concerns the safety of mass events and is dictated by their increasing popularity. Mass events are organized at various levels of the territorial division and have a very diverse range. Their safe organization and course are important from the point of view of the country’s internal security. The authors provide novel insights into risk management peculiarities of mass events in designed to prevent possible terrorist activities.
The aim of the article is to present the basic aspects of command, functioning, decision-making, and responsibility. The author focuses on showing the broadly understood command system, especially in the course of implementing security tasks. Therefore, the content of the article presents an analysis of basic definitions, goals, assumptions, strategies of action for correctly perceived command based on the authority and genius of the person at the forefront of this process - the commander.
Command is seen as a process in which the commander imposes their will and manner of operation through orders, supported by an element of planning, organizing, anticipating, motivating, and controlling. The main and most important assumption of command is to create all possible circumstances to ensure maximum safety of execution of the task as well as for the entities participating in it. While analysing command as a process within a system, it should be emphasized that modern command system should be structured in such a way as to enable action to be correctly planned in a timely manner with a flexible and rapid response to changes in the situation. The ideal command system organized on principles of security should be able to gather relevant information continuously, comprehensively, selectively, and quickly. Command is the process of imposing the will of the commander and implementing their intentions, controlling the action and being responsible for decisions that often have very serious consequences. It is a responsible, multivariant and multi-entity process, which implemented skillfully, strengthens the position of the decision maker, as well as affects the morale of the performers and strives for the final success of the task.
Security of societies has become one of urgent issues in contemporary world. Too frequently we started encountering one or another form of malicious behavior, criminal activities or terrorism. New and complex threats highlight the need for further synergies and closer cooperation at all levels. Awareness, preparedness and resilience of societies emerge as key preconditions of further secure and sustainable economic development and general well-being. A special attention in those conditions has to be paid to development of theoretically grounded approach to protection of critical infrastructure (CIP), damage or disruption of which can be immensely harmful to unprepared and therefore vulnerable institutions and society. The aim of this paper is to lay theoretical foundations for theoretically grounded approach towards research in CIP area, in order to formulate, ultimately, an approach towards action, which, employing leadership societal stakeholders would allow to enhance awareness of society actors about the threats, i.e, to develop ability to recognize, prevent, and, in case of disaster, to resist to consequences of critical infrastructure infringement. Hence, enhanced resilience of society to critical infrastructure infringement is and ultimate goal of fostering of leadership for critical infrastructure protection.
In this article, the problem of terrorism is discussed in view of the peculiarities of legal nature. The phenomenon of terrorism is being analyzed by scientists in the political, economic, socio-psychological point of view and more attention is paid to the legal theoretical characteristics of this phenomenon. A more detailed analysis of terrorism in the article shows that use of concept of terrorism, regardless of reasons for this, makes the fight against terrorism an ideological tool, posed together as a growing threat to human rights. Furthermore, this article analyzes the reasons of terrorism and provides tendencies for further development of global terrorism. When there is no clear definition of terrorism and its causal relations are acceptable to all, questions concerning the scope of the fight against terrorism arise. In this case, we cannot be sure that modern democratic countries use the correct definition of terrorism in all cases and do not violate the human rights when fighting against terrorists. Even more doubts about the actions of democratic countries participating actively in fight against terrorism arise. The uncertainty of terrorism concept is being used to conceal violations of the human rights.
The connection between illegal migration and terrorism is in the focal point of security dilemmas since the beginning of the flow of migration and since the terrorist attacks in Paris in particular. The basic question is whether the terrorist organizations are able and will embed terrorists among the migrants. The essay makes a comparison between the American and European handling of refugees emphasizing the effectiveness of the American refugee’s processes. The author refers the challenges of the security services facing the Islamic State.