This paper is devoted to tracing contemporary perceptions of energy security. Energy security, as a concept started its evolution from a point, where it was identified with secure oil provision for countries, which did not possess energetic resources and were increasingly dependent on oil imports. Gradually, the concept of energy security started to be repeatedly used in the scientific papers, popular press and media and even colloquial language. Energy security has become an argument in making political decisions. Nevertheless, despite the exaggerated attention to energy security, still there is no unanimous agreement on what the concept of energy security means, what facets it embraces and, consequently, how it could be measured and controlled. The paper aims to distinguish the main perceptions of energy security and foresee plausible implications of one or another approach adopted.
The world faces new challenges and threats to international security environment, among which a key role play different types of cyberthreats. This follows, primarily the global links in a cyberspace in terms of critical infrastructure of the state’s and intergovernment’s objects in the international security environment and the fact that the cyberaggressor’s tools are becoming cheaper, and their skills are more and more advanced. There is an urgent need for the analysis of present and future cyberthreats in the security environment, to understand their impact on everone, States, Nations and organizations and develop effective methods of response in this highly complex reality. The article presents the concept of defining of main types of cyberhreats (i.e. information warfare, cyberterrorism, cybercrime and cyberespionage) on the base of the new theoretical approach of modern security environment model.
Sustainability and security assessment currently arises as comprehensive and integrated approach. Sustainable development is a fundamental and overarching objective of the European Union (EU) countries. It aims to improve the quality of life of citizens through sustainable communities that manage and use resources, by linking economic development and security, protection of the environment and social justice. Measuring progress towards sustainable development is an integral part of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS), that defines objectives and targets intended to put the European Union on a path towards sustainable development. The issue of economic security and sustainability has been analyzed in theory from different perspectives. In many studies the macroeconomic indicator Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the best-recognized measure of economic performance in the world. However, GDP may measure economic growth but does not involve all aspects of sustainable growth or development. In order to effectively measure progress and wealth, clear indicators are needed that incorporate social and environmental costs and benefits. There is no shortage of research on indicators complementary to GDP, but this remains a subject for academic discussions. In order to manage security and sustainability, society has to formulate clear and measurable goals of sustainability. The level, at which these goals are achieved, might be measured using sustainable development indicators. The paper aims to reveal prevailing conceptual approaches of sustainability from the macroeconomic as well as corporation perspectives, to summarize and compare the key factors describing sustainable development. The method of the research is based on logic abstraction that encompasses generalizations and examinations on theoretical approaches and academics’ surveys.
The article analyses the realization of the support from the EU structural funds in the regions of Lithuania. It has been investigated, in which areas and regions the funds have been most and least successfully assimilated. Socio-economic development of the Lithuanian regions has been analysed in the period of 2008-2011 and the influence of the assimilated EU support. Similarly, debatable questions of the region, its development and conception of regional politics have been studied.Statistical data from Eurostat, the Department of Statistics of Lithuania under the Government of the Republic of Lithuania and the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Lithuania have been used in the research.
Security and sustainability conception analysis is being provided in the paper. The conceptions of security and sustainability have been selected due to their significance for contemporary globalized world’s issues. Initially, the perceptions encompassing even ancient times are being elaborated. Onward, with an intention to get a more sophisticated view of above mentioned expressions, relevant scientific literature has been critically reviewed accentuating to the dimensions of those two phenomena. The following common dimensions could be proposed: social, economic, environmental. The implication could be stated - security conception provides not only those three dimensions some other important dimensions could be distinguished as well. One more important finding composes the perception of dimensions interactions to analyzed conceptions. Some important implications are being provided in the paper, which elevate the significance of security to sustainability for today’s globalized society - security can be proposed as expression with ponderable value, while sustainability gains this power only with “sustainable development” phenomenon.
As an efficient e-recruitment system is comprised of organizational, technological and socio-cognitive elements, article focuses on these three elements in military recruitment. Using a series of semi-structured interviews with a specialist in the military recruiting, the research was performed. The interview schedule was developed from the literature and piloted with minor changes to provide focus and clarity on such topics as advantages of e-recruitment system, functions of this system, e-recruitment methods, organization, environment and efficiency. The research reveals that the military focuses on organizational and technological recruitment elements. The tasks allocated for the recruitment system are related to the efficient presentation of information directly to the society groups. Special attention is also devoted to organizational activities including distributing functions. Cognitive activities, its demand and requirements for them are not clearly expressed.
The aim of the present article is to examine parameters of product innovations that could lead to a successful expansion of international companies to the innovation-driven market. The case of the European mobile technology company in the Korean market is analyzed by introducing a market research method and demonstrating what sort of mobile phone could be designed for the South Korean youth. Companies often declare focusing on stronger marketing and sales efforts in one particular business area or geographical region via creating, testing and introducing a new product. The reasons for failures in foreign markets in many cases are related to the lack of knowledge of this region, wrong choice of the product as well as the incapability to choose a right innovation and expansion strategy. It should not be forgotten that a technological product innovation is more readily adopted by the firms that have a market penetration strategy and hope to gain a direct advantage over the competition. The level of technological intensity, user-friendliness, style, cultural aspects, loyalty to native products as well as the level of integration of customers and clients in innovation or marketing processes are important factors while expanding to foreign markets.
The research question: are product innovations necessary for international companies in expansion to innovation-driven markets? Firstly, there is the country profile presented in the context of transformation to the knowledge-based economy; it is continued by classifications of innovations and product design. These chapters are followed by the presentation of the European mobile company ‘X’, which is a good sample of companies that could find results of the present market research of significant interest. Finally, there are main preferences regarding mobile phones, collected by the online survey, where Korean citizens from 15 to 40 years old were interrogated, revealed; the answer to the research question is provided and a new product for the European mobile technology companies designed.