This paper focuses on identifying risks in selected social facilities in relation to the possible occurrence of an emergency. Risks are dealt with for residential social facilities that provide meals all day long in the territorial scope of the city of České Budějovice. Via the application of the KARS method, selected risks are assessed using their correlations. In this way, the risks are divided into those that primarily threaten the examined social facilities, as well as risks that represent hierarchically-lower risks, or those that were assessed as relatively safe. The research investigated risks in relation to emergencies that occur when social services are provided within the cadastral territory of the České Budějovice. The KARS method was used to identify the risks that are most dangerous for social facilities. In the first stage of the analysis, group risks were ascertained that occur during the operations of individual facilities. The risks were divided into those that primarily threaten the social facilities, and to those which hierarchically represent lesser risks, or were assessed as relatively safe.
Securitisation is an intersubjective process of construing new categories or subcategories of security by identifying existential threats, the alleviation of which requires extraordinary measures and social acceptance. During the COVID-19 pandemic, both during the near-total lockdown, as well as in the period where restrictions were loosened, the messages presented in public space, calling for specific behaviours, displayed certain signs of this process – the limitation of citizens’ rights without the introduction of a state of emergency, as provided for by law, was carried out on the grounds of an extraordinary threat (threat of infection, illness or even death) the eradication of which requires extraordinary measures (depriving citizens of the possibility of moving, working, learning, taking advantage of entertainment or pursuing their passions, as well as imposing an order to wear masks and maintaining social distance) to be applied, which ˜– on the one hand – were introduced under the pain of punishment, while on the other, they were supposed to be met with general acceptance as rational and just. The following paper presents the results of a study of communications appearing in the public space in the period from March to August 2020 in Poland, which were to support the process of securitisation of the pandemic threat.
The sustainable, adequate, security and efficient operation of a central bank depends on many internal and external factors. New trends, challenges, and threats (which are associated with European integration, globalization, etc.) affect the sustainable, efficient, and security operations of the ECB, which can lead to economic or financial crises. Therefore, in the current situation, the concept of the Central Bank’s activities, its legal status and the institution of monetary policy should change completely. The purpose of this research was as follows: 1) to determine economic and legal aspects of sustainable, efficient and safe operation of the ECB, with a reflection on innovation and analysis of modern de lege lata trends to ensure sustainable development of the EU, 2) to prepare conclusions and to identify positive and negative aspects that affect the activities of the Central Bank, 3) on the basis of scientific and practical de lege lata research and its application, to develop de lege ferenda to improve the activities of the European System of Central Banks, the European Central Bank, national central banks and other institutions of the European Union.
Information technology (IT) initiates innovation in the shopping and entertainment center (SEC). To take advantage of Industry 4.0 requires a digital strategy and its evaluation system. We offer a conceptual framework that will support TS Property management in implementing a digital strategy, thereby allowing updating its business model. This document describes in detail a model for assessing the impact of a digital strategy on management efficiency based on two SECs in the Republic of Kazakhstan, using TS Online and SmartPlaza control systems, the system architecture and a decision-making model for SEC stakeholders. The centralized control system TS Online SEC is designed to coordinate all enterprise systems, management subsystems and BI analytics. The main components of a central control system are process control, synchronization, subsystem interactions and network system.
Globalization as a modern process is accelerating in the whole world, and this process contributes to both -progress and various negative phenomena in society. One of these negative phenomena is transnational criminality, which is increasingly impacting also Latvia. For that reason, this problem is investigated in this paper, in order to understand how the Latvian state may take advantage of the potential of globalization to reduce the consequences of this globalization, which become apparent in the form of transnational criminality. This paper analyses a number of concepts related to the research area, such as „globalization”, „transnational crime/ criminality” and others. The discussion about the impact of globalization on immigration and how it affects the transnational criminality is also one of the issues of his paper. The purpose of this paper is also to investigate the impact of globalization on drug-related crimes, as well as the issues of prevention of these crimes in relation to the Republic of Latvia under the influence of modern globalization. The paper explores the potential for international cooperation in the fight against transnational criminality, as well as deals with ways of further improvement of this transnational cooperation to make it more effective in reducing of transnational criminality. The above mentioned paper could serve as a theoretical insight into various problems, which the law enforcement bodies have in practice, when they have to deal with different aspects of transnational criminality. This paper also explores the problems that may arise when the officers of these institutions have to cooperate internationally in detecting transnational organized crimes and, thereby, to learn from this cooperation, so that this international cooperation between the law enforcement institutions of Latvia and other countries will ensure more better results in the future.
The purpose of the paper is to assess the impact of corporate governance on Vietnam banks’ performance measured by ROA (return on assets) and OER (operating efficiency ratio). The article uses a research method which is a quantitative research method through the construction of a binary Probit model with two aggregate variables, namely Macroeconomic indicators and financial index variables. The results are consistent with prior research findings, and more importantly, presents statistical justification for pursuing further corporate governance reforms to enhance Vietnam banks’ performance. These findings also lay a foundation for policy makers to make necessary changes to improve corporate governance (i.e role of board of directors, shareholder issues) of Vietnam banks in the future. Social Implications: the study used Vietnam listed banks’ financial data collected covering a period 2008 to 2018. The findings indicated that board size, CEO duality and large shareholder had statistically significant effect on bank performance in both ROA (return on assets) and OER (operating efficiency ratio). While institutional shareholders and foreign shareholders made no impact on Vietnam banks’ performance.
It has been proven that administrative liability for violation of customs rules is one of the most effective means of ensuring law and order in the customs affairs and customs policy of Ukraine, and contributes to strengthening the customs security of the country. It has been established that at the present stage the customs system of Ukraine is at the stage of stagnation, characterized by the existence of a large number of objective and subjective problems that must be solved by joint efforts of government officials in various fields through large-scale effective reform of customs authorities. The statistical analysis of smuggling in Ukraine for 2013-2018 has been carried out. The directions of coping with smuggling patterns has been proposed. In the context of European integration of Ukraine, the solution to this complex problem is seen through the study of the successful experience of representative European states as regards building and operation of customs systems, which are based on the use of European customs principles and operate effectively at European and international levels. The system of risk management and analysis operates on the basis of built-in analytical tools, which are used by customs authorities to develop and implement a full range of control measures for high-risk goods. This allows identifying fiscal and nonfiscal risks ensuring the implementation of the principle of selectivity. Such approach to customs control maintains an optimal balance between facilitating foreign trade and ensuring the financial security of the state, reducing the time of customs clearance and shifting the emphasis to customs control after the release of goods for free circulation. Development and implementation of new software products will allow improving the electronic declaration system, making the most of its capabilities. The fight against customs offenses of an economic nature, the main purpose of which is to import goods into the country with evasion of customs duties, can be effective and efficient only if it is conducted by measures of an economic nature.
The discussion about the impact of financial development on economic growth is still relevant for economists. However, in recent years, after the financial crises of the first decade of the 21st century, there has arisen certain scepticism about the positive impact of the growing financial sector on economic growth rates. Moreover, specific cases of negative consequences of such a connection or its absence have become known. The 2008-2010 crises, certainly, played an important role in rethinking the nature of the impact of the financial sector on the real sector in the economy, which led to new arguments in favour of a relatively more cautious approach to stimulating the financial sector, given the potential negative effects on the country’s socio-economic security. The aim of the research is to determine the nature of the relationship between financial development and economic growth and its direction in Latvia in the period 1995–2017.
It has been revealed that the legal and doctrinal basis of information security in Ukraine developed symptomatically and haphazardly. This is largely due to the fact that modern research methods are based on different worldview positions, solve research problems in different ways, and also use excellent research strategies. In addition, information security was primarily viewed as the information security of the state. Subsequently, the intensification of informatization processes in all areas, especially the growth in the importance of technical protection of information, led to the formation of legal support for the protection of information as an integral component of the security of enterprises, institutions and organizations, as well as individual sectors of the economy. At the turn of the millennium, the question of international information security, as well as cybersecurity as part of information security, became acute. The stages of the formation of Ukrainian legislation in the information sphere in general, and information security in particular, have been analyzed, and it has been found that at each of these stages, the information security of a person remained a secondary issue. Increasing the efficiency of administrative and legal support for information security in Ukraine is possible through the implementation of a set of legal measures, which include: clear reflection in law and state institutions of the orientation on the combination of public and private economic interests in the information sphere; constant and consistent use of all human rights mechanisms and procedures to overcome conflicts in the information sphere; raising the legal level of consciousness and activities of civil servants, representatives of all branches and levels of government, and the country’s population.
Integration of the foreign trade sector of the national economy at the practical level is a reform of the bilateral trade regime through the liberalization of customs-tariff and non-tariff regulation, unification of the conditions for the international movement of production factors (investments, labor), and internal regulations that have an indirect impact on the development of foreign trade relations in order to eliminate economic barriers and the creation of a single market space between the parties to the integration association. Customs regulation of the foreign trade sector plays a key role in the national security system. At the present stage, this type of integration takes the form of concluding bilateral agreements on a deep and comprehensive free trade zone, which apply, inter alia, to environmental standards, government procurement, trade aspects of intellectual property rights, and the like. Based on the analysis, it is proved that the general structure of export supplies from Ukraine to the EU continues to be of a raw material nature: 52.8% of their value are agricultural raw materials, mineral resources, and primary processing products. The most adequate expansion of a deep and comprehensive free trade zone for modern realities is the vision of the role of the state as a systemic regulator, which, on the one hand, does not resort to the policy of isolationism, and on the other hand, acts as an active participant in the processes of international economic integration and entry into the most developed markets of the countries of the world, helping to increase the level of competitiveness of the foreign trade sector of the national economy.