This paper is mapping the migratory routes to Europe, details their characteristics and briefs the ongoing changes in the political, economic and social sphere. Though many people think that migration towards Europe is a recent phenomenon, it have been lasting – with diverse intensity – for centuries now, even its main tracks remained almost the same. There are routes that are crowded with migrants at one year and – due to European border authorities’ counter-measurements – are empty a few months later. Considering the adaptability of these migratory routes, detecting, tracking and detailing them are a significant challenge, although, in order to manage the recent crisis, analysis and the appropriate use of the information on migratory routes are essential. This motivated me to briefly delineate the main paths used by the illegal migrants on their ways to Europe. This paper however, does not elaborate on the movements within the EU and the ways connecting the member countries.
The shifted research gaze in energy security studies leads to formulation of new question – is it possible to talk not only about objective indicators of material deprivation and poverty caused by the lack of energy security, but take into account indicators from sociocultural dimension? By analyzing solely objective processes and considering economic and political reasons as well as consequences of energy security do we not forget to analyze less visible but not less important aspects of norms, values and power relations, for example how energy security is related to social exclusion? Social exclusion in the paper is defined as process in which the minimum quality of life is not available for the individual or conditions that increase insecurity, shame, psychological discomfort, lack of confidence, lack of self respect and dignity. The ambition of this article is to contribute to consistency of theoretical discussion by tackling energy security to social exclusion as well as by setting methodological guidelines for the assesment of energy security impact on social exclusion. Based on various theories and research models the methodological framework is being laid down in the paper which would encompass such questions as - how public interest is recognized and represented in energy security policy; how (and if at all) the interest of smaller social groups (environmentalists, pensioners, poor, etc.) is defined and represented; whether energy security policy acknowledges interest of poor, deprived and disenfranchised individuals or addresses solely to active and powerful (from consumption point of view) individuals; how existing energy security policy treats and fosters to feel vulnerable groups?
Various types of calamities determine greater political attention to disaster management, but permanent efficient functionality of this sphere has to be the priority of the state as the guarantor of fundamental obligations to its citizens. Legal regulation sets fundations for functioning of certain system of institutions and processes, which intend to ensure proper disaster management. The article analyses theoretical aspects of disaster management in the context of public sector modernization with the distinction of traditional public administration, New Public Management, New Public Governance and Neo - Weberianism. The focus is on the acceptability of different models of public sector to disaster management. In the first part of the article, the attention is focused on the advantages and disadvantages of traditional public administration to disaster management. The second part of the article reviews the significance of the reform and the practical implications of the principles of New Public Management to disaster management. The third part of the article analyses the significance of New Public Governance discourse to disaster management and the fourth part defines the newest theoretical aspects of public administration Neo-Weberian model and its significance to increasing the efficiency of disaster management system is evaluated.
A good knowledge of terrain characteristics and movement possibilities within it are crucial conditions for operations success. If a commander and his staff have enough information about the terrain, he can optimize a combat formation and its movement in an open terrain. Such as optimization can finally spare manpower as well as equipment and decrease probability of loss of life. This paper deals with a complex mathematical model of terrain passability, which respects both geographical and meteorological conditions in the terrain and with its adaptation to calculation in the environment of geographic information systems (GIS). Such a model can be directly implied into command and control system to support decision-making processes.
The main problem of an off-road vehicle movement in an open terrain consists in considering the properties of a given surface; also, technical properties of a particular off-road vehicle have to be considered. The model of terrain passability is based on measurable factors that characterize the natural environment, which is possible to calculate using the data saved in GIS databases. While calculating parameters for a complex model, it is necessary to consider data quality, which influences the level of vagueness of the resulting calculations. In order to express this level of vagueness, a method of fuzzy functions was selected and applied while calculating the individual deceleration coefficients given by the natural factors. The method of cost map was selected for the final evaluation of possibilities of vehicles movement. The complete procedure was debugged in the environment of ArcGIS 10.
From the very beginning of existence of society, there also existed crime, in one or another its ways of manifestation. Historically the punishment tool and the goal of the punishment was greatly dependent on the existing authority, political system, traditions and scale of values in society.
The authors of the article, continuing with scientific publication cycle, which is dedicated to execution of sentence of imprisonment in Latvia and security aspects of the places of confinement, the authors offer to become familiar with the study about peculiarities of execution of the sentence of imprisonment and security aspects in the places of confinement with respect to the persons sentenced with deprivation of liberty for life (life imprisonment).
Undeniable is the fact that imprisonment for life (life imprisonment) is the severest type of criminal punishment in Latvia, and its execution requires a special approach. The requirements regarding the regime of execution of the punishment and security with relation to the persons sentenced with deprivation of liberty for life (life imprisonment) are much stricter than with relation to the other convicts, thus the study obtains the status of vitally important topicality.
This article reflects the results of the conducted study on peculiarities of execution of the sentence of imprisonment in respect to the persons sentenced with deprivation of liberty for life (life imprisonment) in Latvia. The article identifies issues and suggests possible solutions.
The aim of this study is to conduct the analysis of the existing norms of The Sentence Execution Code of Latvia regarding the persons sentenced with deprivation of liberty for life (life imprisonment) and their implementation in practice, as well as their compliance with generally accepted human rights, international norms and standards and the norms and standards of the Council of Europe. Based on the study there has been developed a series of recommendations for the staff of places of confinement working with the persons sentenced with deprivation of liberty for life (life imprisonment), as well as pointed out the necessity to make amendments to the norms of The Sentence Execution Code of Latvia.
The authors suggest that the drawbacks and issues discovered within the framework of this study, as well as proposed solutions will make a significant contribution to the development of the punishment execution rights theory in Latvia. It will be possible to improve the sentence of imprisonment execution legal framework and practice by using new scientific cognitions stated in this study.
Due to the rise and rapid growth in e-commerce in recent years, the use of payment cards for online purchases has dramatically increased the credit and debit cards market. This situation has led to an explosion in payment card fraud and it is causing billions of euros and dollars in losses in the card payment industry.
In addition to direct losses, the brand may be affected by fraud-induced decrease in consumer confidence. It is therefore important to know the opinion and consumer approach to security and payment card fraud. As a result of rising losses, financial institutions and card issuers are constantly searching for new technologies and innovations in payment card fraud detection and prevention.
This article provides several views on personal safety and quality of security that banks devote to payment cards and payment systems and the related research was carried out in an electronic form by means of selective examination in Slovakia in 2015. The study group consisted of 287 respondents, of whom 164 were men and 123 were women. The respondents were categorised by their age, education and job.
The study results can help the issuers of payment cards and banks as well as clients using payment cards, especially in order to increase the prevention of misusage of payment cards and fraud.
The issue of sustainability is frequently discussed in relation to the tourism industry. This is as a consequence of the rapidly increasing demands of tourists and the fact that tourism is perceived as one of the driving forces behind economic growth in some destinations. This can lead to both positive and negative future impacts. The emergence and growing economic impact of tourism means that it is essential to devote research into the implementation of sustainability issues and measurement indicators with regards to future economic prosperity. Historically, one of the first needs of a tourist was the need for shelter against the elements. Nowadays, the understanding of what accommodation is has been extended to include comfort and relaxation. The pressure on the accommodation sector to apply sustainability measures in practice in order to adapt to changing demands and to protect its economic prosperity, is enormous. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the main economic sustainability indicators, gross domestic product, and the internal consumption of tourists in accommodation facilities. The hypothesis that a mutual relationship exists in the Czech Republic between gross domestic and the contribution of domestic and inbound tourism expenditure on accommodation, is tested through a correlation analysis. The results of this analysis were used to determine how urgent the need is to implement sustainability measures within the Czech accommodation sector and within the hotel industry.
Pension systems are a standard part of the macroeconomic and microeconomic environment of developed countries. Pension schemes, particularly developed after World War II and based on continuous funding system are currently getting influenced by the negative changes such as demographic fluctuations, changes in economic growth and high unemployment. These changes put the high burden on economically active population and that increases pressure on the necessary reform. Slovak Republic in order to ensure stabilization of the pension system, taking into account the adequacy of pension benefits, had decided to reform the pension system, which means that was applied combined method of financing of the pensions. This change turned into high transition costs which are significantly destabilizing the pension system and in the short term these costs are deepening the deficit of public finances and also the whole financial sustainability of the pension system. The reform of the pension system required not only the introduction of the funded method of financing of pensions, but also caused changes in the interim financing arrangements. The most important parametric changes made in the Slovak Republic are: linking retirement age to life expectancy, changing of the mechanism of valorisation of pension benefits and changes in the funded pension schemes mainly driven by the global financial crisis. Adopted parametric changes will significantly improve and strengthen the long term sustainability of the pension system and public finances.
The paper reflects on question of regional policy ensuring food security in the context of closely interrelated economic, social and ecological components. Having performed analysis of common agricultural policy, programs for rural development, impact of world trade organization, integrated product policy, question of food security monitoring, influence of multinational companies, genetically modified products, programs for food support; we come to the conclusion that to the main trends of regional policy in the sphere of food security belong: establishing interregional and international import-export food operations, creation of regional reserves of strategically important products, direct/indirect financial and consultation support of agricultural enterprises, development of infrastructure facilities for transporting, storage, distribution of products, food support for socially unprotected groups of population, promoting development of eco-oriented production, implementation of control measures for the prevention of counterfeit in the trading network, control of production and sale of genetically modified products, formation of ecologically oriented thinking population.
The article describes an implementation of CAD program T-Flex for creating 3D models in scientific research at the University of Security Management in Košice. Benefits of using this program in an individual course of the study programme Management of Security Systems will be explained in this article. T-Flex program would allow the students to design and subsequently model the security systems. The acquired knowledge and skills of students in the program T-Flex can be used in their participation in research activities through diploma theses, bachelor theses, semester project, as a benefit for their future application in practice. The implementation of the individual subject using the T-Flex program together with mutual links with other courses within the study programme Management of Security Systems would result in an increase attractiveness and effectiveness.