Globalization processes are widely discussed in scientific literature. In our research we adopt an approach, according which globalization; especially in form of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) is one of sources of innovative technologies and proxy of sustainable development of industries and countries’ economies. In order to design efficient government policies in the field of FDI attraction, such globalization drivers have to be revealed and their importance evaluated. In presented paper we raise and verify hypotheses about importance of the following globalization drivers: tax burden, institutional performance and market consumptive capacity. Regression analysis tool, we believe, allows revealing if those drivers are equally important for developed and less developed countries (LDC). Economic interpretation and generalization of obtain results, we believe, would allow indicating if consistent patterns can be traced. If so, more efficient government policies, allowing attract innovative technologies, especially to LDC can be suggested.
This study consists of two research aspects. First of all, the author analyses the relationship of energy consumption and economic growth in the context of 13 selected countries in the period of year between 1990 and 2010. Secondly, using statistical techniques the paper takes into account cross-sectoral dependence when analyzing the relationship between energy consumption and economic structures of the same countries. Based on the energy consumption, the countries are divided into three groups: low energy consumption group, middle energy consumption group, and high energy consumption one. Statistical methods, including correlation analysis are employed for the estimation of the structural changes of economy and relationship between energy consumption and economic structure in each of the three groups. In general, the results of this study indicate that energy consumption is closely related to all economic activities for all groups of countries; however the case of Lithuania reveals the absence of relationship between energy consumption and industrial sector. Moreover, in the context of comparative analysis, China, as a high energy consumption country, has a completely different picture of economic structure as well as relation between energy consumption and structural changes. Economic sectors, such as industry, services and agriculture depend on energy resources, but in different degree in these three groups of countries.
It is scientifically proved that foreign direct investments (FDI) are one of the life-forces for economic growth. Foreign investors use local labour, capital, and natural resources that are constantly running out and limited. However, global companies that translocate their production process often devastate the nature of the host country. Decline of natural resources and climate changes forces to think about how people could develop country’s economy and social welfare, but at the same time save nature and its resources. Global companies are the main developers of economy and social welfare, but also, they are environment polluters. The value of sustainable development is quite obvious, but there is a lack of research about the relationship between FDI and sustainable development in the literature. The literature separately analyses the problem of sustainable development or FDI impact on economic development. Often, FDI is described by determining the effects, but it does not address the question of expedient foreign capital, which would provide the greatest benefit to the host country. The article analyses the influence of foreign direct investments (FDI) on sustainable development. It develops the concept of sustainable investment. It aims to find out whether the purposively formed foreign direct investment policy can ensure the sustainability of economic development. In this case, FDI can become an instrument for the implementation of sustainable development. This study is about Ireland case. The choice is not coincidental. Since this country applied FDI policy, it was able to transform the economy rapidly, and also it became one of the most developed countries in Europe. The authors of the research chose ten economic, social, and environmental factors that define sustainable growth. The analysis revealed the contact between the indicators of FDI and sustainable growth in different periods of the economic cycle.
Issues of sustainable development and socially responsible business currently have been discussed a lot. Nevertheless there are no many evidences about causal relationships between social responsibility and profit. But it appears that companies begin to have strong stimuli to pursue social responsibility as a driver of value added in monetary terms. In this context, cause - related marketing obtains higher importance and can be employed for directing activities of profit seeking companies towards socially responsible activity. The presented paper is devoted to analyze Cause-Related Marketing (CRM). Numerous authors have tried to define Cause-Related Marketing concept to realize its field and to differentiate it from others terms. However, there is still no general agreement about the definition, content and scope of CRM, especially in countries such as Spain, where there is a higher conceptual confusion accentuated by translation errors. In this sense, the main objective of this paper is to review and complete the conceptual framework where the theoretical development of CRM is based.
Mining and metals production sector (MMPS) of Ukraine is one of the basic for the state’s economy. The sector’s output, as well as the gradual increase in production, gives reason for taking a favorable view of its development prospects. Until the mid-90s MMPS of Ukraine key representatives were separate companies that operated as independent legal entities. However, during 1999-2004 the MMPS enterprises integration into the structure of major private transnational financial industrial groups took place. Large-scale consolidation of major enterprises that occurred in order to adapt to market conditions contributed to the emergence of business combination referred to as holding company. In the future, Ukrainian iron and steel companies’ competitiveness in the world market will be largely determined by the scope of their participation in the global consolidation processes. Their future directly depends on the rate of large corporations’ formation and restructuring, including changes in the mechanisms of corporate governance. This is one of the most important ways to improve the efficiency of the national iron and steel industry.
As an alternative to the conventional GDP, a new “progressive” GDP termed as the “Holistic Progress Index” or the HPI has been proposed; and an original approach to its quantitative evaluation has been presented. The HPI integrates social, economic, ecological and political aspects of human progress. The rationale of HPI and its evaluation methodology are presented. As proposed, the HPI is based on three major parameters i.e. the Net GDP per capita, Socio-Ecological Progress Index and Socio-Political Progress Index representing Peaceful Development, Sustainability and Human Freedom respectively. The factors involved in the quantitative evaluation of HPI are GDP, military expenditure, health, education, carbon emission, poverty reduction, leisure, population growth, crime and human freedom. Hence the proposed HPI is much more comprehensive than the conventional GDP. Future actions / projects required to utilize the concept of HPI are also proposed and discussed. It is concluded that a pursuit of the growth in HPI (rather than a growth in GDP alone) will lead to Peaceful and Sustainable Development without curtailing Human Freedom.
Special features that options include are the main reason of their growing amounts trading in the financial markets. Options can be used in many imaginative ways to create various attractive investment opportunities. Empirical researches all over the world illustrated that options incorporate an insurance element not available in any other security and because of that they can be used by investors to create return distributions unobtainable with the strategy of allocating funds between fixed income securities and stock portfolios. But investor must understand that one of the main aspects of profitable trading in derivative securities is their proper evaluation and pricing. As the exact valuation of options is quite difficult, the article deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of pricing of options. The purpose of the research is to adopt Monte Carlo simulation method to predict prices of plain vanilla options and to compare them to real option prices and option prices calculated using analytical Black-Scholes formula.