Over the past two decades the number of Internet users around the world has incredibly increased. E-commerce is becoming a potential area for business development creating significant added value for the global economy. This increases competition between e-commerce platforms and makes it difficult to survive. The purpose of this article is to create a conceptual model for the success of e-commerce by identifying the factors that determine the involvement of different generations in the international e-commerce activities. An analysis of the scientific literature was carried out to identify the factors. The assessment of existing success factors and success models has identified weaknesses and shaped the model of e-commerce success, which includes the generational divide as a factor that determines the choice of the consumer.
Purpose – the article provides part of the broader research in the area of management systems standards and management systems certification. In the paper we analyse the evolution of management system standards after implementation of High-Level Structure (Annex SL) on the example of the most popular management standard ISO 9001: 2015 with the comparison to ISO 14001:2015. To understand the evolution and predict the future of certification we examine more deeply the behaviour of individual standard worldwide and on the particular markets.
Research methodology – this study presents a quantitative overview of the quality management system standard certification during and after the last revision transition period. It presents analyses based on ISO survey data, data of the certification structure in Slovakia and particular data of broader research on adoption of an environmental management system in Slovak companies. The data were presented in graphs and tables to outline the change of dynamics of standards usage. We compare certification markets and analyse the observable impact by the type of standard, sectors penetration and possible certification impacts.
Findings – the evolution charts of the volume of certificates over time express a saturation effect and stable reduction in the dynamics of ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 standards. The analysis of certificates numbers by industrial sectors highlights a decrease in the majority of sectors, only a few of them show up a positive trend in the last two years.
Practical implications − the results of this study should be considered indicative rather than definitive. Taking into account the assembled data, multiple questions appear about the future. The future studies could proceed in qualitative research on causes of certification reduction and the possible incentives for management system standards application in organizations to sustain a system of credibility in international trade.
Originality/Value – the paper analyses the evolution of management system standards ISO 9001 with a focus on “Big Revision” impact.
Trending processes in certain regions of Africa, Middle East and Asia forced many people to immigrate to Europe. After arriving to Europe’s periphery, migrants apply for the asylum, or move to the predetermined countries. However, some circumstances encourages refugees to migrate illegally. As Europe is mainly covered by land, the illegal immigrants use land transport as a mean for movement across the Europe. 27% of illegal immigrants use road freight transport. There are some evidences that intrusions into the road freight transport units became better organized and planned. European road freight companies are taking preventive measures to reduce or avoid such incidences; however private sector is not able to control the risks of illegal immigrants through its preventive measures alone. The present paper discusses conceptual model which serve as initial background for the cooperation between private and public sector and joining their efforts towards elaboration of common actions necessary for solving problem of intrusions of illegal immigrants.