This study was performed to evaluate and examine financial literacy and retirement planning in sector employment in Vietnam in the context of financial safety during lifecycle. In order to collect primary data, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to 257 employees in the public and private sectors in Ho Chi Minh City. The results of descriptive analysis indicated that those who work in the public sector have a higher percentage of correct answers to questions about financial literacy and knowledge of social insurance than that of employees in the private sector. The results of a linear probability model (LPM) and two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression show that financial knowledge and regular saving are significant factors that enhance retirement planning, whereas sector employment is insignificant to retirement planning. These findings should improve the knowledge of financial literacy, pensions and social insurance disseminated through retirement seminars and education programs for workers. More research, however, should be conducted on these topics in Vietnam.