Increase of energy efficiency remains as one of the major strategic objectives in Lithuania. Effective use of existing energy saving potential increases energy security and reduces emissions of greenhouse gas and other pollutants. In order to meet the growing energy demand and to reduce the negative impact of the energy sector on environment, increase of the role of renewable energy sources in the country’s primary energy balance, as well as larger deployment of energy-efficient and smart technologies in all areas, including military structures, are required. When analysing energy security and energy efficiency, as the two interrelated aspects of the Lithuanian energy policy, assessment of the global energy trends in the world, the EU and neighbouring countries, expected developments in the modern technologies, as well as global aspirations to neutralize the threat of climate change was performed. The paper provides an overview of energy consumption trends in the European Union and Lithuania, energy policy in the NATO alliance, as well the current status of energy consumption in the Lithuanian National Defence System.
Global economic development and continuous growth of the world population are the major factors which cause growth of energy consumption and increasing volumes of greenhouse gas emissions. Attempts to achieve sustainable energy development are still not enough successful. Scientific community and international organizations are concerned with consequences of global warming: increasing temperature in various regions of the planet, significant and harmful effects on health and environment, growing number of extreme storm events and large wildfires, rising sea levels, changes in landscapes. Increasing efforts of governments and politicians should be directed to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels combustion by increasing energy efficiency and by deployment of renewable energy sources. The paper focuses on efforts of world community directed to sustainable global energy development, implementation of new energy policies and provides an overview of energy consumption trends in the world by 2035.
One of the most important strategic goals in Lithuania is implementation of sustainable development provisions. Taking into consideration closure of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant implementation of this aim depends very much on development of the Lithuanian energy sector. This paper presents some findings from the analysis of the Lithuanian energy policy and the energy sector development, in particular taking into consideration the role of energy efficiency, renewable energy sources and nuclear energy. The paper focuses on changes in primary energy balance and in deployment of renewable energy sources over the period 2010–2020. The paper also presents analysis of changes in electricity generation taking focus on factors stimulating construction of new regional nuclear power plant in Lithuania and factors limiting its attractiveness.