Włókiennicza Street in Łódź is currently undergoing a revitalisation process, which is also to include specific social activities for its residents. The revitalisation aims to raise the urban and architectural standard of this street, formerly known as Kamienna Street. The author describes Włókiennicza Street’s cultural transformation in the context of the theory of the relationship between the physical environment and crime. In particular, the author analyses the transformation from a street of wealthy residents to a street that is notorious for crime and poverty, and the contemporary hopes for changing the character of this part of the city as a result of a revitalisation project. Based on this, he raises the question about the necessary pedagogical and social measures in addition to strictly architectural measures.
This paper is devoted to the assumptions of the protection of combatants, prisoners of war, civilians and refugees during armed conflicts. It describes the legal regulations for the protection of combatants and prisoners of war, the norms of international law relating to the protection of civilians, and prohibited means and methods of military operations. The content of this chapter was intended to outline the legal status of persons protected in armed conflicts. The phenomenon of war is very often connected with the problem of human rights violations. Increasingly, during armed conflicts, the civilian population is disadvantaged alongside the armed forces of the fighting parties. Bearing in mind the above, international organisations have taken a number of initiatives to protect human life and health. However, a reflection arises that the legal standards in the field of international humanitarian law of armed conflicts and human rights are not properly respected during wars and armed conflicts.
Securitisation is an intersubjective process of construing new categories or subcategories of security by identifying existential threats, the alleviation of which requires extraordinary measures and social acceptance. During the COVID-19 pandemic, both during the near-total lockdown, as well as in the period where restrictions were loosened, the messages presented in public space, calling for specific behaviours, displayed certain signs of this process – the limitation of citizens’ rights without the introduction of a state of emergency, as provided for by law, was carried out on the grounds of an extraordinary threat (threat of infection, illness or even death) the eradication of which requires extraordinary measures (depriving citizens of the possibility of moving, working, learning, taking advantage of entertainment or pursuing their passions, as well as imposing an order to wear masks and maintaining social distance) to be applied, which ˜– on the one hand – were introduced under the pain of punishment, while on the other, they were supposed to be met with general acceptance as rational and just. The following paper presents the results of a study of communications appearing in the public space in the period from March to August 2020 in Poland, which were to support the process of securitisation of the pandemic threat.