Present research is developed in light of the farmland market establishment in Ukraine. Agriculture is one of the key sectors of national economy, which determine its development. Thus, the farmland users determine the transition of the national economy to sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is in developing a methodology for quantitative assessment demand quantity and price on farmland market in Ukraine. In the present research, we propose a methodology for estimating demand on agricultural land in Ukraine based on the operational data of the corporate agricultural producers and macroeconomic situation in the country. Using the discounted profit margins for the corporate agricultural producers, which operated in Ukraine in 2015, we estimate land price and demand quantity that is conditional on profitability of agricultural production towards to sustainability. As a result, we find that after establishing the land market in Ukraine, demand on the agricultural farmland is expected to be significant and is likely to generate substantial capital flows towards landowners. In addition, existence of the transferable land-property lights will make the land available for the collateral purposes. That is expected to enable Ukrainian corporate and private agricultural of any size to the improved access to capital. Specifically, this paper is amount the first one, where demand prices on the possible land market in Ukraine are estimated. Opening one third of the arable land area to the market (sample of the corporate agricultural producers covered by the research due to the data related limitations), agriculture may benefit with 30 to 50 billion euros of the capital investments.
Transport biofuels are currently the fastest growing bioenergy sectors even they represent around 3–4% of total road transport fuel and only 6% of total bioenergy consumption today. Low oil prices and poor margins continue to challenge biofuel producers in Europe. Under current market conditions it is unlikely that the 7% cap will be reached in the EU by 2020. Since the past ten years, production of biodiesel from waste and animal fats has taken off, while the commercialization of cellulosic ethanol is lagging behind compared to former targets. Co-products are supposed to be credited with the area of cropland required to produce the amount of feed they substitute. If co-products are taken into account, the net use of land and feedstocks declines. Most existing biofuel regulations significantly undervalue the contribution of co-products when assessing the net land use and GHG impacts of biofuel production. Long-term transport shares are the most challenging to project because the range of possible vehicle technologies and fuel types in the future is very broad and future oil prices are uncertain. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels has slowed down and sustainability criteria have been established regarding the use of land and the mitigation of environmental impacts caused by biofuel production.
Throughout the history of mankind, energy security has been always seen as a means of protection from disruptions of essential energy systems. The idea of protection from disorders emerged from the process of securing political and military control over energy resources to set up policies and measures on managing risks that affect all elements of energy systems. The various systems placed in a place to achieve energy security are the driving force towards the energy innovations or emerging trends in the energy sector.
Our paper discusses energy security status and innovations in the energy sector in European Union (EU). We analyze the recent up-to-date developments of the energy policy and exploitation of energy sources, as well as scrutinize the channels of energy streaming to the EU countries and the risks associated with this energy import. Moreover, we argue that the shift to the low-carbon production of energy and the massive deployment of renewable energy sources (RES) might become the key issue in ensuring the energy security and independency of the EU from its external energy supplies. Both RES, distributed energy resources (DER) and “green energy” that will be based on the energy efficiency and the shift to the alternative energy supply might change the energy security status quo for the EU.
Energy security is conditioned by numerous factors, among which solutions and patterns of energy storage play important role. Electrical energy storage (EES) is the process by which energy is stored from the power network to a form which can be used later when converted back to electrical energy. There are various ways by which electrical energy can be stored for future purposes. Nowadays, the electrical energy is mainly stored in pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) that comprises about 99% of EES worldwide and the battery energy storage (BES) that uses chemical energy with both methods yielding characteristic advantages and disadvantages. Electrical energy is mainly stored when there is low demand and when there is high generation of power at low costs. The energy is then used when there is high demand of power and the generation cost is high or when there are no other means of generating electrical energy. Electrical energy storage has many uses such as in the electrical devices, motor vehicles and stationery energy resources and is gaining special attention with the widespread usage of renewable energy sources (RES).
In this paper, we are focusing on the sustainable development of the electrical energy storage. We are drawing a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of pumped hydroelectric storage and batteries that use chemical energy and assess their implementation based on various scenarios of the future development. We conclude that although HPS is still the more economical option, new advances in BES might alter the energy market and change the rules of the game by fostering the sustainable development through the more effective storage and transportation of electric energy.
Critical Energy Infrastructures can suffer different impacts from accidents and natural disasters which concern the whole energy system and specific functional aspects of Energy Security as well. A negative energy event -i.e. a strategic refinery blockade due to an accident- can provide useful experiences which demonstrate the connection among logistic efficiency, resilience and Energy Security. Spanish refinery Puertollano suffered an accident in year 2003 which stopped oil logistics in a significant part of the country. Military oil refined products logistics in Spain are managed by CLH oil products logistic company -operating in the framework of a Public-Private Partnership and civil-military cooperation model- and then this enterprise facilitated the implementation of a resilience measures aimed to guarantee the operation of oil products logistic chain in the affected area. Management of Puertollano refinery crisis in 2003 showed positive results for ensuring National Energy Security, market and business normal function, system stability and infrastructure re-adjustment. This crisis advanced criteria and lesson learned for Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection and business continuity planning.