World Wide Web, Information Technologies and Web-Enabled Collaborative Technologies 2.0 accelerate the process of globalization. In modern globalization process, these technologies dictates how information is designed and how information flow is used in global communication system. In such interactive global environment, Fourth Generation Warfare has emerged where people’s identities and beliefs are the primary source of conflict. Primary fight is held not between countries, but between cultures. It is obvious – the nature of war has drastically changed and it almost eliminates the boundaries between the war and peace. Such an understanding generates a different view of modern warfare. From the modern perspective the main risks are directed to the state’s internal identity through people’s “hearts and minds” and society’s moods. People’s loyalty to attractive ideas and not to organizations is a major shift. It supports Sun Tzu’s and Clausewitz’s main ideas - winning wars without massive destruction by breaking down the enemy’s will and determination to fight with a limited use of military power. It is needed to reconsider not only the definitions of modern warfare and warfighting but also rethink the concept of combat power. It is obvious that the role of the military in peacetime activity must change significantly. Nevertheless, the new understanding rise a necessity to integrate the whole society and subjects of state in dealing with threats. The holistic defense approach is a new, more effective way of tackling modern security and sustainability issues of the states that need to be clearly defined.
Despite the rising recognition and a growing body of literature on sustainability issues in the military, no comprehensive and systematic review on the topic has been published yet. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to deconstruct the topic of sustainability in the military context by exploring its genesis, state-of-the-art knowledge and future prospects. Furthermore, the study addressed the question of practical importance about where sustainability in the military is ad hoc or institutionalized into management processes and procedures of organizations. The paper relied on the systematic literature review and used a bibliometric data analysis: citation network and keyword network analysis techniques were employed to select, analyse and interpret the genesis and prospects in the field.
The data suggest there are three dominating research streams in the field: (1) environmentally sustainable solutions, (2) economic (un) sustainability of militarization and (3) social cohesion. The recent research on sustainability in the military marks a new trend where all three fields of sustainability are being integrated. It is also apparent form the analysis that a small but significant share of publications indicates institutionalization of sustainability in the military practice. This is particularly evident in relation to environmental issues.
The objective of this study is to review current research on knowledge management in military and to identify the main streams where research is performed. Knowledge in the military is perceived as a tool and means for effectiveness and has been analyzed from diverse standpoints. Accordingly, the studies in this field take different paradigms and represent the perspective of management, social networking, organizational psychology, information technology and other fields towards the phenomena of knowledge in the military and its management practices. Although previous studies on knowledge management in military have presented some literature overviews, this study is the first to provide a systematic analysis using content mapping.
Systematic literature review using in-depth text mining and bibliometric networks are used as methods for this study. The data consist of theoretical, analytical and research papers retrieved from Web of Science Clarivate Analytics (VoS) (N=406) and Scopus databases (N=317). According to findings, knowledge management research in the military is performed in three streams. The larges stream represents management science paradigm. The second largest stream represents interdisciplinary perspective and the smallest stream is predominated by technical solutions in the military knowledge management. The results of in-depth text mining identify the recent trends in knowledge management research in the military. They are associated with knowledge integration and strategy.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how learning in collaboration can support the development of sustainability competence in the military. The concept of sustainability in the military is controversial; nevertheless, requirements for more conscious decisions regarding economics, environment and society issues enter military practice and require rethinking the processes of military education and development. The application of computer-supported collaborative learning brings new opportunities in overcoming controversy of sustainability in the military and at the same time puts forward the solutions and skills for implementations of sustainability in the military.
Instead of using traditional approach towards sustainability as an interaction of the following three components: economic viability, social welfare and environmental protection, we described sustainability in the military as a composition of mission, management of installations and stakeholders, operations and maintenance, environment protection and quality of life. According to these categories, e-learning platform was developed. The core of this platform is the formal learning curriculum, which serves as a shell under which a variety of practices can be introduced to address the desired training objectives. The complex solution was accomplished with computerfacilitated collaborative learning that enables teem-working, collaboration and peer-assessment. Computer-facilitated collaborative learning supports social interaction in the learning system and sustains group-work within a variety of decision-making frameworks. Those features of the learning system are very important considering the controversy and complexity of sustainability in the military.