Scouting is a system that developed at the beginning of the last century and is now entering the era of information society. A sense of brotherhood increases the feeling of security. Scouting is a proposal for an upbringing based on active and compassionate values related to relationships with others, for others and for self-improvement and the common pursuit of the ideal. Scout activity, his willingness to serve, experience and interact with other brothers scouts around their world promotes the opening of values in their different dimensions.
This study is the result of many years of permanent observation of the broadly understood area of security and the area of penitentiary science that is strictly connected with it. Due to the complexity of the undertaken considerations, the author of the study decided to emphasise a certain space, which is of an extremely significant value for utilitarian reasons. However, the issue in question has never been fully described in literature. The conducted research and the data obtained as a result indicate unequivocally that there is a need to examine the management of security systems in penitentiary institutions in Poland by a thorough analysis of its individual components.
The aim of the research was to analyse letters written by prisoners so as to discover what the penitentiary space means to them. The practical goal was to show the usefulness of employing epistolography in assessing the quality of social and living conditions and to evaluate the quality of penitentiary practices in the context of prisoners’ needs, as well as to unmask the hidden re-education programme. The article is based on the results of the content analysis of 26 anonymised letters written by prisoners who for the first time serve a sentence in Polish closed regime prisons. The collected research material was subjected to a framework analysis supplemented by an emergent technique. The analysis of prison letters indicates a generally critical assessment of the quality of the practices carried out and their accuracy in relation to the prisoner’s rehabilitation needs. The letters reveal also the existence of a hidden re-education programme. The use of the epistolary corpus in the description of the penitentiary space may result in the improvement of the current penitentiary methods. A thorough analysis of prison letters indicate areas that require change or the application of specific solutions that may contribute to the rationalization of penitentiary practices.
The aim of the article is to present the basic aspects of command, functioning, decision-making, and responsibility. The author focuses on showing the broadly understood command system, especially in the course of implementing security tasks. Therefore, the content of the article presents an analysis of basic definitions, goals, assumptions, strategies of action for correctly perceived command based on the authority and genius of the person at the forefront of this process - the commander.
Command is seen as a process in which the commander imposes their will and manner of operation through orders, supported by an element of planning, organizing, anticipating, motivating, and controlling. The main and most important assumption of command is to create all possible circumstances to ensure maximum safety of execution of the task as well as for the entities participating in it. While analysing command as a process within a system, it should be emphasized that modern command system should be structured in such a way as to enable action to be correctly planned in a timely manner with a flexible and rapid response to changes in the situation. The ideal command system organized on principles of security should be able to gather relevant information continuously, comprehensively, selectively, and quickly. Command is the process of imposing the will of the commander and implementing their intentions, controlling the action and being responsible for decisions that often have very serious consequences. It is a responsible, multivariant and multi-entity process, which implemented skillfully, strengthens the position of the decision maker, as well as affects the morale of the performers and strives for the final success of the task.
Security of societies has become one of urgent issues in contemporary world. Too frequently we started encountering one or another form of malicious behavior, criminal activities or terrorism. New and complex threats highlight the need for further synergies and closer cooperation at all levels. Awareness, preparedness and resilience of societies emerge as key preconditions of further secure and sustainable economic development and general well-being. A special attention in those conditions has to be paid to development of theoretically grounded approach to protection of critical infrastructure (CIP), damage or disruption of which can be immensely harmful to unprepared and therefore vulnerable institutions and society. The aim of this paper is to lay theoretical foundations for theoretically grounded approach towards research in CIP area, in order to formulate, ultimately, an approach towards action, which, employing leadership societal stakeholders would allow to enhance awareness of society actors about the threats, i.e, to develop ability to recognize, prevent, and, in case of disaster, to resist to consequences of critical infrastructure infringement. Hence, enhanced resilience of society to critical infrastructure infringement is and ultimate goal of fostering of leadership for critical infrastructure protection.