The concepts of security and weapons are closely related, which equally applies to both public security and national security. In order to ensure their national security, countries are trying to purchase the most effective weapons. In order to achieve the necessary level of public security, the country arms law enforcement personnel. Such armament is legitimate and contributes to the strengthening of general security. At the same time, the purchase of weapons by the population for individual security purposes is not so unambiguous. On the one hand, law-abiding citizens have the right to protect their lives and health from criminal threats. On the other hand, a free turnover of a large number of weapons increases their accessibility and the possibility of getting hold by individuals who are able to use them for criminal purposes. The question arises: which weapons can be available to the population and which not. After all, weapons can be different. A special position in the category of weapons is occupied by cold weapons, the criminal liability for the possession of which is provided for in some countries. Moreover, the question of what should be considered a cold weapon is sufficiently disputable. All these issues are to be studied in the framework of this article.
Cryptocurrency market is developing fast during the past few years. Cryptocurrency now is available as a form of payment for retail goods, as an instrument for a wholesale international transaction a mean of exchange for whatever goods and is available through ATM’s. Moreover, it is developing as a possibility for fundraising a) as a private debt b) as seed capital. Companies like Facebook are discussing launching own cryptocurrency. Bank UBS is developing its blockchain based virtual currency as well. However, scientist agrees that cryptocurrency has an important impact to national security. It became a relevant instrument for illegal good transactions, a mean of exchange in the darknet and an instrument for money laundering or infrastructure for new kind of money-laundering practices (for example - “Smurfing” phenomena (EU Observer, 2019)) European Union is launching AML and KYC procedures for the cryptocurrency market. Would it be efficient? Why are we implementing KYC and AML procedures for cryptocurrency? Is it able to minimize risks?
The key purpose of this research is to explore the nexus between crime, socio economic strains and the economic growth of Thailand. The study has used the ARDL technique to achieve the objectives of the study. The finding revealed the fact that the roles of crime have been well emphasized in the literature, especially on how it acts as a stoppage on the progress of the economy in terms of growth. A crime committed in the economy incurs more expenditure and causes the mobility of highly skilled labour which is worse than the formal labour market. Socioeconomic strains have similar dimensions of impacts on crime variables regarding the positive relationship based on the above results. Deterrence variables performed as expected on other crime variables except on person’s crime. Family instability showed a positive impact on property crime. The extent that socioeconomic strain affects crime variables has shown that the strain of frustration, anger and stress in people are exhibited in the social and economic factors that prevail in Thailand. Individuals facing economic hardships brought by socioeconomic factors would innovate alternative means to survive.
One of the most essential strategic resources of the company is the knowledge that is used and developed within the company, creating innovations, and can be transferred among other companies, organizations, industrial sectors, and countries. The key reason for this spill over is the vulnerability of knowledge transfer channels. Knowledge is quickly transmitted through the media, scientific publications, reverse engineering, R&D cooperation, interaction between staff of various firms, companies, and organizations. In addition, knowledge cannot fully belong to the organization. R&D spillovers have a positive impact on innovation development; promote access to knowledge and its dissemination on a non-profit basis which enhances R&D cooperation between different economic entities, organizations, countries in the field of innovation diffusion. The contribution of R&D spillovers to achieving innovation development, the relationship between knowledge spillovers, innovation and R&D cooperation have been thoroughly examined. Differences between knowledge spillovers, knowledge transfers, and knowledge externalities have been identified. Types of R&D spillovers and levels of knowledge spillovers have been considered. Mechanism and theories of knowledge spillovers and local competition have been analysed. Comparative, systematic and critical analysis of scientific literature has been used in order to create the theoretical background for research of R&D spillovers and their impact on innovation development and economic growth.
The development of clusters contributes to the growth of agriculture and processing industry of the republic. The use of the cluster approach corresponds to the nature of agricultural products, which needs processing and timely marketing and delivery to consumers. One of the goals of cluster formation in food production and business development in interrelated industries, along with increasing the competitiveness of national agribusiness products, should be to ensure the safety of final products for consumer health. Agriculture should ensure the safety of the raw materials supplied, food engineering – the safety of equipment on which food products will be manufactured, packaging production – the safety of packaging in contact with foodstuffs.
The main objective of the currents study is to investigate and explore the antecedents of the convergence in ASEAN countries. Foreign direct investment, trade, government size, population are examined as the antecedents of the economic convergence in ASEAN countries. Examining the phenomena of absolute convergence among ASEAN countries is another set goal of this research. Achieving this goal obviously requires different approach, methodology wise. Cross section regression-based studies have utilized what is called ‘regression to mean’ to examine absolute convergence across countries traditional unit root testing procedure developed by Dickey and Fuller (1979) is employed to test for convergence hypothesis. Employing ADF test also serves two purposes: 1) the methods has to be used to provide input for performing simulations to apply SURADF procedure. Developed by Blundell and Bond (1998), system GMM uses additional moment conditions to serve as an improvement in terms of performance of estimators in the models developed in Arellano and Bond (1991). The implication of this finding is that economies that are more open in terms of trade and with high level of government participation are more likely to show high level of convergence to the group average real GDP per capita than economies that less open to trade with little government participation as measured by government final consumption expenditure as a percentage of GDP.
In the current conditions of global competition, various regions are struggling to attract investment and human resources. The most successful are creative clusters in which a new product with increased consumer value is created. However, for the formation of creative clusters it is necessary to provide a number of conditions: tolerance, talents, technology. Tolerance implies the presence of specialists with different competencies and behaviors. A decrease in the tolerance coefficient leads not only to a risk of low susceptibility of cultural indigents from other countries, but also to a decrease in the variety of forms and ways of thinking, creative realization, selfexpression, which directly affects the country’s innovative and economic development.By the example of assessing the potential of creative clusters in Kazakhstan, it is shown that the loss of tolerance leads to a risk of a decrease in creative potential. The calculation of mathematical clustering was carried out in the STATISTICA program. The state should ensure multicultural diversity for the conditions of innovative development. By an example of assessing the potential of creative clusters in Kazakhstan, it is shown that the loss of tolerance leads to a risk of a decrease in creative potential. The state should ensure multicultural diversity for the conditions of innovative development. A decrease in tolerance directly reduces the potential for the formation of creative spaces, and is also an indicator of the risk of monocultural development, the lag of Kazakhstan in the educational, scientific and innovative spheres of the international country community.
International fiscal regulation of transfer pricing solves important taxation problems of company groups to ensure fair distribution of the taxation base between different jurisdictions and in one country. The alternative to the arm’s length principle for similar problems is a concept of formulary apportionment approach. The need to solve such problems is pressing for the Russian consolidated tax groups too, primarily in the technology and capital-intensive industries. Russian Federation’s seven-year experience of creating the consolidated tax groups based on the formulary apportionment approach can be of interest to the specialists in any country researching such issues, because the government has acknowledged the current Russian system ineffective. Economic approach to formation of a sectorial cashgenerating unit grouped according to economically integrated businesses and an investor control concept over an investment facility is the basis of our research. Practical calculations were done for the current consolidated tax group, confirming the advantages of this approach for fair distribution of the taxation base for the technology and capital-intensive industries. We have drawn executives’ attention to the solutions enhancing investment attractiveness of the tax groups in conditions of restricted access to information for external users in the IFRS reports of a group.
This research study has given important implications for regulators through elaborating the association between economic growth, financial openness among the five member countries of ASEAN including Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. An insight has been provided about the relation of economic growth and trade openness from the practical aspect in ASEAN economies. Therefore, the policy makers are supported through this information to develop, overview, and revise the existing regulations and policies of financial openness. This research study has made significant contributions through analyzing the association between economic growth and financial openness from the theoretical aspect. The study has argued that the current literature is extended by this study through focusing on the developing economies of ASEAN. Banking sector is a crucial institution for any economy and economic growth is negatively influenced through collapse of the banking activities. Further, financial system comes at risk through financial openness, but it has a considerable role in the development of economies. The financial system liberalization is the main factor, which drives economic growth among the ASEAN countries. There is need for the policy makers to review and alter the existing regulations of financial openness.
The general objective of this study is to estimate the relationship between electricity consumption, economic performance and the price of electricity in four sectors namely the industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural by using the panel data approach on leading ASEAN countries. The present study intends to contribute significantly to the existing literature by presenting a comprehensive approach of the issue of electricity consumption in Thailand. The information of electricity consumption in the industrial, commercial, agricultural and mining sectors is essential to understand the magnitude of the sectors’ sensitivity to change with respect to GDP and electricity price. Moreover, real electricity price is incorporated in this study to provide a more consistent result. The findings are important for researchers and academicians by providing a better knowledge of sectoral electricity demand to permit better regulatory decisions in order to facilitate economic efficiency. Apparently for the policy makers, it will be possible that the approach of this study could be useful as a guideline to facilitate the adoption of a more appropriate model for electricity demand management as well as restructuring the electricity sectors. Furthermore, the findings of this study will be helpful in the formulation of effective energy and pricing policies in order to encourage consumers towards the efficient use of energy for the future of sustainable energy and development.