The connection between illegal migration and terrorism is in the focal point of security dilemmas since the beginning of the flow of migration and since the terrorist attacks in Paris in particular. The basic question is whether the terrorist organizations are able and will embed terrorists among the migrants. The essay makes a comparison between the American and European handling of refugees emphasizing the effectiveness of the American refugee’s processes. The author refers the challenges of the security services facing the Islamic State.
Current study aims to analyse the Russian-Ukrainian conflict and related economic and political sanctions in the framework of game theory, debate the possible outcomes and to suggest the measures, which could contribute to the successful solution of the conflict. “The chicken dilemma” and “the dollar auction game” have been selected among various models for deeper analyse as matching the starting criteria and possible rational options for conflict endgame. The criteria of success and predicted success scenarios are seen different, but as the authors see it, in theory both Russia and the EU could be motivated to “pull back”. However, their willingness not to “lose the game” is determined in real terms by the “breaking points” that both parties to the conflict would like to avoid.
The significant growth of the economy in a number of countries, together with the liberalisation of civil air transport now represents a significant impulse for the development of tourism, practically-oriented almost in all countries of the world. This trend is confirmed by the world WTO, ICAO and IATA statistics. The growth of air transport brings the need to ensure the fast and comfortable passenger and their baggage check-in with high security level fulfilment. In the checking process, with permanently growing volume of passengers, a critical place appears for which an optimal solution is currently intensively being searched at different levels. In this article there are analyzed options of selected types of contemporary and prospective technical equipment which are used during security checks, in the process of passengers check-in at the airport. The aim of this discussion is focusing on the choice of technology, suitable for the analysis of passengers´ behaviour, and evaluating options for the detection of potential dangerous security risks.
The objective of this article is to develop a methodology in order to implement real-time customers segmentation analysis in the decision making process of the enterprise. A review of big data usage in retail stores was conducted along with a document-based descriptive analysis of secondary data and further critical literature analysis. Decision making strategies and flow charts were used for the development of competitiveness methodology by referring to a case of a supermarket chain. Customer segmentation researchers analyse mainly the algorithms or behaviour pattern behind the clustering process; however, neither of them offers a proper strategy for implementing a realtime customer segmentation process inside the enterprise. Sustainable competitiveness advantage may be achieved by implementing the segmentation theory with concepts of data mining and internet of things (Iot). The process of developed data mining shows many ways for the enterprise to maximize competitiveness. However, time and large investments may be required to develop proper methods for unique solutions. A concrete case study of the selected retail store should be analysed before implementing the real-time customer segmentation methodology inside the enterprise. There is a multicultural population in every market that has different culture, beliefs, preferences and shopping patterns; therefore, constant analysis is essential for efficient usage of customer segmentation. Practically none of the prior research results carried out by other authors offered a concrete methodology how to implement real-time customer’s segmentation inside the enterprise. The authors created such a methodology that can provide sustainable long-term competitiveness advantage.
The article deals with the inter-war Lithuanian aviation in the period of 1919-1940. By using all available historical and literature resources, the author aims to analyze the inter-war aviation cooperation and perform historical analysis of aviation institutions. Having reviewed the historical development of these institutions, it can be concluded that since their establishment the main purpose has been the country’s defence in case of armed attack. Military aviation has become the core of aviation. The cooperation of the aviation institutions during the Soviet occupation is not analyzed. The authors claim that processes of development of strengthening of Lithuanian aviation istitutions are interreated to sustainable security phenomenon.
In this article assumption is being made that economic structure of economy affects economic security of a country. The main exported goods of Kazakhstan for the period 2000-2015 is the commodity group “Mineral products”, which accounts for no less than 65.8% of total exports of Kazakhstan. And in Kazakhstan’s economy is currently experiencing a clear decline due to the instability and decline in world oil prices. One solution to the government of Kazakhstan has chosen the conduct of the national currency devaluation in February 2014 and August 2015. Down conjuncture of oil prices since 2014 has ceased to be favorable, and in Kazakhstan, only 5% of the oil sold in the domestic market and almost all the oil produced in Kazakhstan is exported at a rate of 95%. In the presented paper authors consider the problem of diversification of the Kazakhstani economy, which actually depends on raw industry. The analysis of the current situation and recommendations for further reforming of economy are provided.
Often taxation is considered as a restriction to any market development, lessening the willingness to effective actions or raising the opportunity costs. Therefore lots of investigations are dedicated to identification of optimal measures in order to satisfy the fiscal needs still encouraging market performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of capital income taxation on corporate bond market development by using the Laffer curve and tax burden measurements and methods. While theoretical investigations proposed an application of tax exempt to corporate bond transactions, empirical results stated no significant arguments for corporate bond market stagnation to taxation.
We based our research on existing functional organizational structures and systems of financial administration of Slovakia. We worked on the assumption that improvement of effectiveness of the system of optimal tax collection was necessary for sustainable development of Slovak socio-economic system as such. Based on the current trends analysis we assume that a forthcoming tax and customs administration reform would significantly increase the effectiveness of the system and as a result it would also lead to a more positive view of taxes as socially unpopular obligations. By this process, Slovakia aims at effective tax system, which can lead to increase in efficiency and higher competitiveness of our state among EU countries. Based on the survey in three Slovak regions and by factor analysis we want to analyze the structure of following social factors: collection of contributions and accessibility, competency of tax administration employees, electronization of tax administration, effectiveness of tax collection, labor costs, and administrative burden of tax administration. These are considered to be hidden reasons of mutually correlated variables. The aim is to explain and clarify the observed correlations. It can lead to improvement of the conditions of tax collection for taxpayers when they can use electronic form of their declarations of contributions and taxes (taxes, contributions: social security and health insurance) based on which the state can distribute via a unique identifier the funds to individual institutions.
The article presents the current issues and latest trends of the first public security policy priority – analysis is made of how public security is ensured in the field of public order. The research starts with the discussion of the legal basis for ensuring public order, primarily revealing the concept of public order as such and today’s main threats to public order. Further, analysis covers the problematic aspects of the legal protection of public order: the legal mechanisms of order protection are discussed, whether they are effective, if not effective, how the legal regulation in this field is to be perfected. Attention is also devoted to the problems of human rights protection while ensuring public order. Hereafter, an analysis is provided of the administrative aspects of ensuring public order, covering the setup of the state and municipal institutions, responsible for maintenance of public order, and problems of their activity organisation and coordination. Special attention in this work is devoted to the state-of-the-art problematic aspects of police activity organisation, to the compatibility of the functions and competences of the Public Security Service, analysis of strategic goals, to the research of the opportunities of municipality and local communities for their participation in maintaining public order. As a result in this research is emphasised the importance of decentralisation in ensuring public order; the main guidelines of modernisation in this field are presented. The authors applied general scientific methods of studying objective reality, peculiar to legal sciences: systematic document analysis, meta-analysis, structural-functional analysis, teleological, comparative, critical approach, generalisation and prediction.
The article presents an analytical overview of models of social policies in the context of their application to socio-economic system of Latvia. In the article, the history and peculiarities of the creation of integrated social policy of member states of the European Union, European social model as well as a system of Key Indicators characterizing the social policy of Latvia in the context of the European Integration are analyzed. The problems faced by Latvia in its socio-economic development and ways to overcome them are identified. The necessity of forming a new model of socio-economic policy in Latvia by the transition to a model of sustainable development is justified. Proposals to improve the social policy of Latvia by the transition to the model of sustainable development of the country are made.