The concept of civil control over the military is complex and multifaceted. It is especially important to understand how the civil control is implemented in practice. In this paper, the analysis mainly focuses on the current state of the democratic civil control over the Lithuanian Armed Forces (LAF) and the civil-military relations. The introductory part gives a short overview of the development of relations between the Armed Forces and the society in independent Lithuania. Special attention is given to the negative effects of the military coup in 1926 on the civil-military relations. The changing status of the Armed Forces around the world and its theoretical and practical implications are also outlined.
The first part of the paper discusses constitutional and legal basis of the civil control over the military and the institutional structure of the National Defence System. The authors in turn explicitly tackle the shortcomings of the executive chain of command and control over the Armed Forces and the parliamentary oversight of activities of both the executive authorities and the armed structures. The analysis rests on the assumption that despite the creation of the legal base (the Law on the Basics of National Security, the National Security Strategy, other legal acts), the practice of the democratic civil control is not fully crystallized and incontestably embedded in the Lithuanian political system. The authors also draw attention to the insufficiently effective parliamentary oversight of national defence institutions.
The second part of the paper discusses the relationship between the civil control over the military and the Lithuanian defence and foreign policy, building on the assumption that civil authorities have full control over foreign policy while the military retain some autonomy over certain professional matters of defence policy. Attention is drawn to the agreement of the parliamentary parties on defence policy priorities. The authors note the influence of cooperation with NATO countries on the development of the LAF in accordance with Western standards. However, the authors differentiate between the requirements of the membership in NATO and the EU with regard to Lithuanian defence policy.
The final part of the paper “The Armed Forces and Society” in more detail discusses the current civil-military relations in the country. The importance of the publicity of Lithuanian defence policy guidelines and the activities of the LAF is emphasized. The authors argue that crisis relief operations should be seen as an indispensable part of the activities of the LAF in peacetime. The special role of non-governmental organizations is also noted in the development of civil-military relations. The role of the media is considered to be positive despite some shortcomings of public information about national defence.
This article analyses the concept, content, and historical experiences of strategic planning in modern economic policy-making. It does so also through the analysis of the case of Lithuania, which has recently undergone transformation from the centrally planned to the fully functioning market economy and now faces new challenges as a member-to-be of the European Union. The central thesis of this article is that the long-term competitiveness of the Lithuanian economy will be determined by its “micro” or enterprise-level policies, which, according to the effectiveness of implementation, will much depend on the capacity of Lithuanian institutions to manage the dilemmas of EU industrial policy.
With reference to research as well as legal and statistical data, this article offers an interpretation of the “security” concept, perception of country’s security, and analysis of drafting a national security strategy. It also highlights constituent parts of a national security strategy and an economic security strategy within the context of national strategies. Moreover, it shows how decisions (both operational and strategic) that are made within the context of national strategies depend on the relevance and probability of manifestation of threats. A motivated conclusion is drawn that a strategy for economic security is a constituent part of an economic strategy.
The composition of threats to economic security is further revealed by showing that threats can be both external and internal.
The article also exposes the relationship between an economic policy and economic security guarantees.
In addition, it identifies threats to the economic security of Lithuania and performs their analysis. It defines factors that predetermine the change of indicators of economic security by revealing the indicators themselves.
The analysis of threats to economic security is practically impossible without the context of an economic security strategy, or this analysis would be incomplete in a methodological sense. On the other hand, the author does not claim to provide a comprehensive analysis of threats to economic security.
This article analyses perceptions of security in Lithuania. The analysis is based on the qualitative research (in-depth interviews). In addition, data of several public opinion polls is used as a complementary source of information that allows to have a broader view and verify the qualitative data. Perceptions of security, causes of (in)security, and factors that influence the sense of security are analysed. The research focuses on the individual (micro) rather than on the state (macro) level of security.