The issue of major chemical accidents in the Czech Republic is first mentioned from a historical point of view. The following are the main hazardous impacts of chemical accidents. The next part is a comparison of the accidental impacts of major emergencies, such as toxic leakage, explosion and fire, even with examples of several typical chemical substances. Some factors of the main hazardous chemicals with a focus on toxic substances are discussed in detail. The modelling of accident impacts is presented in the next section on a detailed comparison of the accident impacts of nine main industrial chemical toxicants. The article also draws attention to the serious danger of the possible misuse of toxic substances in particular for hostile acts of chemical terrorism.
The central topic of this paper is the complex issue of providing crisis intervention, post-traumatic care, posttraumatic intervention care, psychosocial intervention services in the basic components of the integrated rescue system in the Czech Republic. We draw on theoretical knowledge and also on practical experience that members and officers of the integrated rescue system in their daily practice are involved in a number of highly traumatic emergencies and crisis situations. The negative impact of dealing with emergencies and crisis situations has primary or secondary impact on their psychological state. Almost in their daily practice they encounter emotionally stressful situations such as traffic accidents accompanied by severe injuries or death of the participants, mass disabilities of persons, encounters with death (in various forms: natural death, death as a result of a criminal act, etc. ), notification of deaths to survivors, dealing with psychologically and physically demanding conflicts with persons showing elements of aggression and aggressive (verbal and physical) behaviour, interventions against armed offenders, implementation of crisis communication (personal or telephone) with persons demonstrating suicidal intent, implementation of crisis communication with affected persons or their family members, implementation of communication with persons with specific needs (e.g. etc.), implementation of multicultural communication, etc. Thus, traumatic events affecting their psychological state occur in their daily practice. That is why a psychological examination (analysing their mental health as well as their level of resilience to stress, etc.) is part of their recruitment into the basic components of the integrated rescue system. Subsequently, their lifelong learning process includes post-traumatic care, strengthening resilience and the ability to cope with traumatic and stressful events, prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder, prevention of psychological distress or burnout syndrome, etc. Taking into account the above-mentioned facts, the basic components of the integrated rescue system have a system of providing post-traumatic care, and the characteristics of each system and the issue of providing this care is the subject of this paper .
The paper deals with the problems of the occurrence of aggression and aggressive behavior as a provoking cause of various injuries and the need to provide pre-hospital emergency care. Based on the analysis of professional literature, as well as on the basis of experience from practice, it can be stated that members of Emergency Rescue Service exit groups often encounter manifestations of aggression and aggressiveness when providing pre-hospital emergency care. The results of a retrospective observational study of the medical records of the Plzeň and Ústí regions in the Czech Republic are presented. We focused on the analysis and in-depth examination of the calls of ambulance groups to patients whose injuries were caused by aggression and aggressive behavior. This was in terms of the number of call-outs, the frequency of individual diagnoses, NASA score and urgency level, as well as the characteristics of the deployment of individual call-out groups, etc. Options for managing aggression and aggressive behavior are also presented, including an assessment of the potential risk of aggression and escalation. Attention is also paid to the issue of preparing the members of call groups to cope with this negative phenomenon, which has an increasing tendency in the conditions of providing pre-hospital emergency care. The paper deals with this issue comprehensively.
This article deals primarily with the protection of the population in the Czech Republic, as it is a very important security area of the highest priority. The population protection system in the Czech Republic is briefly explained, which has been fully under the responsibility of the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic since 2001, but a number of other central administrative authorities (ministries, special institutes and institutions, research institutes) are also involved in its implementation. In addition to legal standards and implementation decrees, the Czech Republic security strategy and the concept of population protection are also presented. A separate part is devoted to the last valid Population Protection Concept from 2021, and it is emphasized here that the concept places great importance on the population’s preparedness for dealing with extraordinary events and crisis situations. The Model Action Activity of the Integrated Rescue System in the Czech Republic is presented in the next section. Although many model action activities have already been published in the Czech Republic, unfortunately such a safety management plan has not yet been published for the extremely hazardous natural disaster „Tornado“. This subsection briefly explains how the Intergreted Rescue system intervenes in emergency and crisis situations. A separate part is devoted to the hazardous and strong tornado in Moravia in 2021, where a total of 6 people lost their lives and another 200 were injured, many were hospitalized. Material damage after the tornado’s rampage climbed to dizzying heights. The wave of solidarity with the affected population has reached unprecedented proportions not only in the Czech Republic. At the end of the contribution, the authors present their own proposal for the future, how to continue working in this area, from the preparation and convening of a national security conference in the Czech Republic to the preparation and publication of the Model Action Activity of the Integrated Rescue System in the Czech Republic in the disaster event of a tornado.
The pandemic situation associated with the occurrence of COVID-19 has necessitated the initiation or renewal of research activities aimed at the possibility of using materials that will have very good post-accident properties. One of the materials that have been developed, tested and applied in the past has been materials based on the spherical fullerene C 60 molecule. A microstructure using REM and SEM and sorptive properties of fullerene C 60 for gases of toluene with the employment of a QCM detector has been studied. Obtained micrographs are discussed in relation to a possible spatial arrangement at the molecular level. The envisaged solution aims to develop a sensor that, due to its surface properties, would be useful for the detection of gas and liquid phases of chemical warfare agents and industrial chemicals. It is envisaged that the surface layer consisting of fullerene C 60 will be universally applicable, reusable and low cost and low maintenance.
he possibility of creation of nanocoatings with hydrophobic or oleo phobic properties on textiles materials designated for protective suits with plasma-chemical procedures with the employment pf atmospheric plasma without vacuum has been verified. On four samples of selected textile materials without any additional modification (Ba, PES+Ba, PES+Ba+Nomex, Ba+Nomex) has been at the Masaryk´s University (MU) in Brno applied with a plasma nozzle with ten different ways nanocoatings based on siloxane (HMDSO, OMCTS) and nanoglass. Prepared samples have been assessed at the MU in Brno even from the behaviour against freely lying drops of the sulphur mustard point of view. At the Military Technical Institute of Protection (VTUO) some selected samples have been subsequently evaluated even from the behaviour of freely lying drops of sulphur mustard. Supposed behaviour of the Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) of the VX type, sulphur mustard and Soman have been simulated within selected samples with observation of freely lying drops of the olive oil, nitrobenzene, and propanol with similar values of the surface tension as above-mentioned CWA. Founded values of contact angles have been compared with contacts values of contacts angles founded in the scope of two developed materials of the coating textiles for modernized filtration protective garment with classical hydrophobic or oleo phobic modification which have been provided with the company of B.O.I.S. – Filtry, Ltd. Within all samples the change of contact angles in time and also the homogeneity of the modification have been considered. The stability and mechanical sustainability of applied sets against washing has not been evaluated. It has been proved that with the help of plasma-chemical modification is possible to prepare nanocoatings even with ultra-hydrophobic (the contact angle for water is bigger than 150 °) and super oleo phobic (the contact angle for water is bigger than 136 °) properties on suitable textile materials. The best results, so called the effect of a lotus flower, have been reached mainly within two samples of textile materials contented a part of nomex fibes.
Important role in the implementation of a proactive approach represents operations dedicated to elimination of weapons of mass destruction. It is obvious that if trained and adequately equipped military forces carried out an operation to eliminate weapons of mass destruction, it significantly reduces the need to organize extensive CBRN defence measures for military forces or protection of civilians. Measures to implement the tasks of defence against weapons of mass destruction (CBRN defence) recently change. The security environment influences the perception and attitude of the Alliance to address global problems associated with state or non-state ownership of weapons of mass destruction. The focus of the Chemical Corps is gradually expanding from the current passive (reactive) approach to proactive approach.
The period in which countries around the world, including the Czech Republic, found themselves at the end of 2021 was characterized by a number of very significant political and security threats and risks. It was a period in which the next wave of the pandemic situation associated with the COVID-19 disease was manifesting itself. Even though the Czech Republic was already much better prepared for the problems associated with the outbreak of this disease, it could not be said that it was managing everything well, without problems and within the political consensus of all ruling and opposition parties. Based on results achieved in the elections to the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic, which took place in October 2021, the priorities of the winning parties grouped into one government coalition were set. These priorities were presented in the form of a coalition agreement to the public. A paper deals with the anticipated intentions of the Government of the Czech Republic in its implementation for the 2021-2025 electoral period in the issues of safety and security in all aspects of their perception. Among the aspects examined were the areas of security policy implementation and the broader concept of population protection. In the paper, the terms “security” and “protection” are frequented in the number and form in which they appear in the text of the coalition agreement. The paper presents the occurrence of these terms in the documents that became the basic and initial documents for establishing mutual pre-election cooperation between political parties and movements. Last but not least, it also presents changes in the approach to these concepts in relation to coalition agreements concluded in 2013 and 2017. Other aspects of coalition agreements are deliberately not mentioned.
Nowadays, filtration barrier materials are more often used for providing with long-term protection of the Czech Armed Forces professionals and Fire Rescue Brigades specialists against the effects of toxic compounds. A comprehensive study provided authors with evaluation of their protective properties’ qualitative changes in connection with knowledge development of possibilities of sensor technologies at this time. A solution usable for an electronic detection of the moment of water permeation or a liquid phase of other test chemicals (penetration) through construction materials of a filtration type or permeable barrier materials which are or perspectively can be used for protection against the effects of toxic compounds has been recently proposed. The aim of the solution is to replace a current used subjective way of the visual observation of water or other test chemicals penetration through textile materials used in anti-gas protection with the objective observation of the moment of test chemicals permeation (time of drench) with the help of a conductivity sensor with a possibility of an automatic record of the rate of penetration with the employment of the KONDUKTOTEST device.
In the paper there are described main modernization trends of face masks. Main construction signs of the fourth-generation masks are introduced in an introductory part. The attention is devoted mainly to masks that can be ordered into a group of the fifth mask generation in further text. A description of development trends is demonstrated on main parts of the facial mask.