State security is a key issue both for the state as an entity and for its inhabitants. The economic security of the state is a particularly important component which can manifest itself on many different levels. The most important of them is financial security. This aspect of security is relevant as in modern economies money is the key value. Therefore, the financial security of the state is a component of economic security, but at the same time its key determinant. The level of financial security, which in the simplest terms is an ability to raise funds when needed, is influenced by a number of factors, the most important of which are the stability of the financial sector, the size of public debt, as well as the size and structure of the country’s foreign exchange reserves. This paper attempts to analyze individual factors that affect the condition of financial security of the state. In the next part, a structural analysis of the most important aspects of the state’s financial security was performed. The research showed that the state of Poland’s financial security could now be assessed quite highly, but the effectiveness of all the measures taken by the government and the central bank to date would be verified in the near future through the development of the situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
The dynamics of changes in the business environment, globalization of economies with the rapid progress in technology make entrepreneurs accept the growing level of risk of crisis situations. The economic transformations that have been taking place over the years have initiated the emergence of mechanisms for crowding out unprofitable enterprises from the market that do not match the requirements of the market economy. On the one hand, bankruptcies may be regarded as a manifestation of failure to adapt to market requirements and changes, but more and more often they become a derivative of phenomena beyond the control of entrepreneurs. In particular, we are talking about ever new types of risk that accompanies business activity. The fact that the catalog of occurring risks is still an open catalog is evidenced by, for example, the recent events related to the Covid-19 pandemic. This paper attempts to present the scale of the businesses bankruptcy in Poland in 2009-2018 and a cross-sectional analysis taking into account the geographical origin of the bankrupt entities, the legal forms where they operated and the industries they represented. The analysis of the phenomenon was based on the data of the Central Statistical Office and own research of the documentation of the National Court Register. The purpose of the paper was to analyze the scale of the bankruptcy phenomenon in Poland over the years 2009-2018 and an attempt to identify the existing relationships.
Mediation is an example of one of the alternative methods of resolving legal disputes. Its use is becoming more and more common, and the very idea of using mediation institutions to resolve legal disputes brings many benefits to conflicting parties, which include speed of proceedings or its cheaper costs. On the basis of national legislation, mediation has become a universal institution because it has been regulated in both public and private law. The next step of the legislator was to equip the mediator in civil matters with various methods through which he can conduct mediation proceedings. Therefore, the mediator conducts mediation using various methods aimed at amicable settlement of the dispute, including by supporting the parties in formulating their settlement submissions or at the mutual request of the parties, it may also indicate ways of resolving the dispute which are not binding for the parties. However, the success of mediation is determined not only by the will of the parties, but also by the way the mediator conducts this procedure, which is characteristic of the conflict management formula. In turn, the instruments at the disposal of the mediator in civil matters, in addition to their real impact on increasing the number of mediation proceedings and settlements concluded before the mediator, which is an example of the desired solution, also imply other legal consequences, including optimization of the costs of the process. Therefore, in addition to financial benefits for parties benefiting from mediation by the society, it is worth considering the methods of conducting this procedure in civil matters, which are examples of tools for managing legal security.