The aim of the comparative analysis presented here was in a way to show a catalogue of ways of handling cases in which the complainant is incarcerated. Additionally the aim of this study is an attempt at explicating the current legal status in Poland in terms of the institution of lodging complaints by detainees and its functioning, and to compile a comparative analysis in the same subject area. In addition, the aim of the study is an attempt to present de lege lata conclusions and de lege ferenda postulates in the context of the matter in question. It should be emphasized that the institution of a complaint is notoriously used by persons deprived of their liberty, which is clearly visible in the statistical analysis presented in the article. For this reason, it seems justified to undertake legislative work in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and the Central Management of the Academy of Justice. This study uses a triangulation of the following research methods: descriptive research method, theoretical and legal method, comparative method with the elements of comparative law, and statistical method. The legal status adopted in the paper as on 30 October 2020.
The concepts of security and weapons are closely related, which equally applies to both public security and national security. In order to ensure their national security, countries are trying to purchase the most effective weapons. In order to achieve the necessary level of public security, the country arms law enforcement personnel. Such armament is legitimate and contributes to the strengthening of general security. At the same time, the purchase of weapons by the population for individual security purposes is not so unambiguous. On the one hand, law-abiding citizens have the right to protect their lives and health from criminal threats. On the other hand, a free turnover of a large number of weapons increases their accessibility and the possibility of getting hold by individuals who are able to use them for criminal purposes. The question arises: which weapons can be available to the population and which not. After all, weapons can be different. A special position in the category of weapons is occupied by cold weapons, the criminal liability for the possession of which is provided for in some countries. Moreover, the question of what should be considered a cold weapon is sufficiently disputable. All these issues are to be studied in the framework of this article.
In the epoch when terrorism and other serious crimes are cross-border problem, both the European Union and its Member States are responsible to their citizens for full ensuring of area of their internal security. Criminal offences against property or property crimes endanger the property of individuals and legal entities, as well as jeopardize their property interests. Consequently, the property rights, which are jeopardized by the crimes, are guaranteed by the State and are ensured by the Law Enforcement Authorities. Quantitatively, the largest group of criminal offences is composed by the crimes that can only be done on purpose of greediness, and most of them express themselves as the unlawful expropriation of the unfamiliar property from the lawful possession, in order to deal with that asset as their own. Such crimes are theft, robbery, extortion, fraud, and they together form more than half of all offences committed. For their research, the authors of the article have chosen the crimes with high public hazard degree from the offences against property. These offences are most of all affected by the globalization processes in the world, and they are: crimes related to a transport vehicle as a threat object; thefts from cultural objects where the objects of danger are churches or religious articles; modern frauds, when during their realization modern technical tools and new technologies are used. During the research, the co-author of the article – Prof. Dr. Jānis Ivančiks, has deceased suddenly. However, the years of joint work, discussions and scientific disputes, that accompanied the writing of this article and other written works allow co-authors to maintain the position and scientific views of this outstanding scientist in the field of forensic investigations and operational activities of special divisions. The authors show in this work the creative activity in the field of legal norms which affect personal property of individuals and their feeling, when the lawmakers eliminate the unnecessary rules, create new or improve existing ones in accordance with the country’s political, economic situation and globalization processes.
Information today is becoming increasingly important, especially in the era of progressive computerization and advancements in the area of computer technology. At the same time, there are also increasingly more threats to this category, of which the most important are criminal offenses against information protection. These are enforced by competent state authorities whose activity is necessary to maintain the proper level of security. The article deals mainly with the phenomenon of crime involving infringement of information, and its scale, using for this purpose the statistical data collected by the Polish National Police Headquarters.
User identifiers for financial transactions are widely used for personal identification numbers (PINs). PIN numbers are deposited at ATMs, card payments at POS terminals and electronic banking services. Bank card (ATM) credit card fraud has dramatically increased over the last decade. When analyzing the most common attacks and the reasons for successful frauds, it is clear that the main problem is PIN authentication, which itself does not produce any security features (except for the use of stars). This means that security is based solely on user behaviour. Research has focused on areas where personal protection and security is most failing, and that’s where the user is carrying a PIN along with a credit card, whether he or she changed the PIN on the payment card, and whether the PIN does not specify the date or year of his birth.
The concept of safety is closely related to the activities of law enforcement agencies and, above all, the police. In this regard, the individual qualities of police officers and their influence on the effectiveness of the State Police in ensuring individual safety of citizens are of great importance. One of the most pressing problems in modern society is to protect women from sexual and physical violence, which is required by the main provisions of the Istanbul Convention. The article presents the results of the research on the representations of Latvian police officers about victims of sexual violence in connection with individual representations of justice through a study of belief in a just world. The topicality of this topic is based on numerous researches of the stereotypical view on victims of sexual violence and the negative impact of these stereotypes on the further investigation of crimes and provision of assistance to victims, which leads to frequent concealment of rape cases and distrust to law enforcement agencies in the professional context of making a fair decision. The aim of this research was to determine how the belief in a just world among police officers (N = 170) affects their attitude towards women who have been sexually abused and their ability to objectively assess the situation. The research was conducted based on the results of 4 used methods: “Personal belief in a just world”; “General belief in a just world”; Attitudes toward Rape Victims Scale; Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale followed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the LSD Post Hoc test method to identify statistically significant differences between groups.
In this article the current trends of development of crime of the terrorist character and extremist orientation are investigated. On the basis of data of official statistics the state and structure of crime of terrorist character and extremist orientation are reflected. The tendency of steady growth of relative indicators of crimes of the terrorist character and extremist orientation is noted. Stimulation of activity of the terrorist and extremist organizations in the Russian Federation naturally inspired the further development of criminal and legal measures of counteraction of crime. Novelization of the criminal law has caused extension of the list of crimes of the terrorist character and extremist orientation. The restructuring of standards of the criminal law directed to the strengthening of measures of counteraction to encroachments of the terrorist character and extremist orientation is followed during the modern period mainly by criminalization and penalization of acts. The outlined tendency of growth of the criminal tension interfaced to development of the terrorist and extremist activity is reflected on the types and amount of the sentences imposed by the courts for the specified crimes. Special attention is paid to the measures of counteraction to the crimes of terrorist character and extremist orientation interfaced to an improvement of legal regulation of their prevention, stimulation of the state mechanism of counteraction of activity of the terrorist and extremist organizations, expansion of the international cooperation in the fight against terrorism and extremism.
In this regard the structure and activity of federal executive authorities, the system of identification, prevention and suppression of the acts of terrorism and extremism, mechanisms of prevention and counteraction to participation of the Russian citizens in the activity of criminal and terrorist groups abroad are a subject to improvement. Significant measures of security of the citizens and society from destructive information influence from the extremist and terrorist organizations are represented, scientific and technical support of the law-enforcement activity, perspective special means and equipment, the system of vocational training of specialists in the field of ensuring the state and public security.
The authors deal with the history of formation of operational and investigative psychology as a field of knowledge influencing the national security. The article discloses in details some psychological essentials of the application of this knowledge in everyday activities of employees of special forces units, police, prosecutor’s office, courts, punishment execution system and other law enforcement institutions. The authors also notes as important that during operational activities, in the process of determination of the truth, officers have not only to help in the reproduction of the facts, but also to try to achieve the truthfulness of the evidence. Because of applying, psychological techniques of operational investigative psychology create conditions for acquisition of correct and complete information about facts, particular events being of interest to law enforcement institutions ensuring necessary impact on persons who intentionally want to hide the truth and often forward false information. Therefore, the acquisition of psychological knowledge in the operational and investigative activities is a necessity for law enforcement institutions.
In the modern world it is hard to imagine any field that would not depend to some extent on electric energy resources; however, the use of electricity is not always legal and general information shows that criminal offences in electricity networks are widespread in the world. Instability in the electricity market is a serious threat to energy supply security in every country and it influences economical, social and political welfare. In order to determine solutions to prevent the above mentioned cases, it is useful to study the experience of legal systems and case-law close to Latvia in relation to the above mentioned criminal offences, as well as to examine the existing problems and particularities of the situation. Taking into account foreign experience in developing legislative acts on prevention of criminal offences related to unlawful use of electricity and their application in practice, this research provides an insight into national legislation and caselaw in this field in several countries – the Russian Federation, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Poland, and the Republic of Lithuania. Analysing the results of the research and the real situation, conclusions on the peculiarities of electricity thefts, foreign practice and possible solutions to improve the situation in Latvia can be drawn.
The basis of this paper is the study of legislative acts of such counties as Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Ukrainie and Russia, related to national security, public order and interests of state prosperity in order to prevent disorders or crimes, to protect health and morality, to safeguard rights and freedoms. The objective of the paper is to assess whether the national legislation meets in this field contemporary requirements, and what are differences in comparison with the legislation of other countries. Our results show that the laws of above mentioned countries are supplemented in due time as much as possible taking into account needs and financial resources of corresponding state. The laws have also similar objectives and tasks. There are some distinctions in application of legal provisions, which, after discussion, would be usefully to introduce into normative regulations of the Republic of Latvia. The norms of law must be clearly defined; the commensurate restrictions must be appropriate for achievement of particular objective, as well as socially necessary. Moreover, the authors of the paper offer concrete proposals taking into account human rights, contemporary situation on the international scene, as well as potential of respective state institution.