The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the impact of crude oil and liquefied petroleum gasses (LPG) prices on the housing price index in 28 European countries. Research shows that the COVID-19 pandemic and the attack of Russia on Ukraine have led to similar large fluctuations in crude oil and LPG prices. This, in turn, contributed to an increase in inflation and house price indices in the 28 analyzed European countries. Such an increase was driven by higher total construction costs, including higher prices for materials, energy and charges for building services. Housing prices in respective European countries vary. The study examines the dynamics of their changes and compares them with the use of ranking.
In the present age, the phenomenon of pedophilia is a very important and as dangerous social issue, characterised by a complex and heterogeneous nature. It is an outcome of various factors inherent in the social, psychological, biological and cultural background, which constitute a homogeneous and coherent whole. Pedophilia polarizes social attitudes and leads to heated discussions. In the current reality, sexualisation of the child’s person is visible in the media, which can contribute to the unconscious perception of the child in terms of a sexual object. An important issue from the point of view of sociological considerations is to be able to answer questions about the etiology and symptomatology of the phenomenon.
The purpose of this article is to present the role of the Border Guard in detecting vehicle smuggling on the Podkarpackie section of the Polish-Ukrainian border in 2014-2020. Organized transfer of stolen cars from the European Union to the territory of the Commonwealth of Independent States and introduction of cars to the Polish customs territory excluding customs and tax duties is one of the most important threats to the security of Poland and the European Union. Uncontrolled smuggling of stolen vehicles is concentrated mainly in larger border crossing points, and the disclosed attempts show with considerable professionalism, specialization and organization of criminal groups, often with international connections.
By fulfilling their tasks, employees of isolation institutions contribute to the subjective sense of security of citizens. At the same time, the staff of these institutions and their dependents become a security entity which, due to the dynamically changing sense of danger on the part of prisoners, requires active prevention of factors threatening the correct execution of the penalty of imprisonment (aggression against officers, violence against inmates, self-aggression, suicidal behaviors, etc.). In fact, by undertaking a number of preventive measures, staff undoubtedly manages security in penitentiary facilities. It is also important to use appropriate protective infrastructure depending on the type and type of prison. It is worth paying attention to the situation of Polish prisons. Political changes in Poland after 1989 also caused transformations in the prison system. A characteristic feature of these changes is the normalization of relations between prison staff and prisoners. Amendments to criminal legislation, including penitentiary, have adapted the legal situation in prisons to international standards. In theory and practice, attention is paid to a more subjective treatment of persons deprived of their liberty and greater protection of their rights and freedoms.
The aim of the present paper is to present preliminary results of the pilot research pertaining to the assessment of the fundamental elements of the local security system, the research being conducted by the authors on the statistically significant sample (4 400 persons) of the inhabitants of local communities of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeship (an administrative unit in Poland). Since the research was very extensive indeed, the present paper contains only a fragment of its results. It transpired that the sense of security of the members of the local communities of the Kuyvian-Pomeranian voivodeship is at a relatively high level. With the assumed scale (ranging from 1 to 10), the greatest number of respondents assessed it at the level of 8 points, and the absolute majority of them assessed it at least at the level of 6. Among all the elements assessed, it was the operations of fire fighters that were evaluated as best. What was assessed as definitely the worst was the functioning of health care and of non-governmental organizations. What came as a sort of surprise are relatively poor (given the allegiance to tradition exhibited by Polish society) scores given to the influence of the Church on the sense of local communality, with a relatively frequent scores falling in 1-4 range. The research method thus put forward by the authors is innovative since it offers a combination of so-called hard elements of security elements with barely measurable sense of security, as assessed by particular persons. A relatively large research sample ensures that the results are significantly informative.
Information today is becoming increasingly important, especially in the era of progressive computerization and advancements in the area of computer technology. At the same time, there are also increasingly more threats to this category, of which the most important are criminal offenses against information protection. These are enforced by competent state authorities whose activity is necessary to maintain the proper level of security. The article deals mainly with the phenomenon of crime involving infringement of information, and its scale, using for this purpose the statistical data collected by the Polish National Police Headquarters.