Leadership competence is a unique set of qualities, skills, knowledge and abilities attributed to specific social and professional groups. Cultural circumstances mean that societies in different countries may have different views on the nature, development opportunities and scope of leadership competences. There are also more and more differences occurring in the views resulting from generational differences. In addition, existing stereotypes in societies are constantly fuelled by media messages, which determines how the image of different formations, including soldiers, is assessed. Bearing in mind the complexity of the nature of leadership, different views of both theoreticians, practitioners and laymen in terms of leadership competence, or even the natural attribution of leadership competence to soldiers and the essence of leadership in the military environment, the author of the article has made efforts to show what kind of leadership competence is held by the soldiers in Poland in the opinion of representatives of the youngest generation (generation Z). This article is based on an in-depth analysis of the source literature (Polish and foreign) and the results of empirical research. Ascertainments and conclusions presented in the article confirm the conviction about the complexity of the nature of leadership, leadership competences, as well as the functioning of stereotypes in the society, which in a certain natural way determine the ways of thinking and the course of cognitive processes.
The objective of this article is to describe the system of defence education for Polish youth after 1989 and its transformations. The article indicates that in Polish primary and secondary schools today, the subject of security education is taught, and in some high schools – especially in Certified Military Uniformed Classes – the subject of military education is taught as well. Among students, however, the defence curriculum is taught mainly as part of extra-curricular activities, mainly within the Academic Legion and Passport Programme. On the basis of the research strengthening military potential is supported by the defence education of young people. The exploration underlined that achieving the defence objectives outlined by the programmes of the Ministry of National Defence in agreement with the Ministry of National Education. The study used the diagnostic survey research method and the techniques of content analysis, a questionnaire, interviews, and observations. The article conluds recommendations for security education curriculum.
The elementary interest of every country is to maintain its inner security and stability. To achieve this goal the state must restrict within legal frameworks some fundamental rights of its own citizens. One of these fundamental rights is the right to privacy that can be breached only under certain circumstances. It is easy to see that it is unacceptable for a state not to control within the legal frameworks the communication of its own citizens so they can commit crimes, run terrorist rings, or spy rings or establish drug cartels without any consequences. Of course, the control over the communication is not the only means of the successful investigation but undeniably a vital one. That is why the Janus faced nature of the Dark Web is a real security risk nowadays. Although this new medium is the fruit of the last two decades its presence today is stronger than ever before and its popularity is growing day by day. Its most important features are anonymity, hidden geolocation and freedom from censorship. The Dark Web is very useful when it provides anonymity for political dissidents and whistleblowers, but is very harmful when it provides the same features for arm and drug traffickers and terrorists not to mention for pedophiles and so on. This article aims to shed some light on the effects of the Dark Web on the security and economy of the states especially in the aspects of organized crime and the terrorism.
The aim of the present paper is to present preliminary results of the pilot research pertaining to the assessment of the fundamental elements of the local security system, the research being conducted by the authors on the statistically significant sample (4 400 persons) of the inhabitants of local communities of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeship (an administrative unit in Poland). Since the research was very extensive indeed, the present paper contains only a fragment of its results. It transpired that the sense of security of the members of the local communities of the Kuyvian-Pomeranian voivodeship is at a relatively high level. With the assumed scale (ranging from 1 to 10), the greatest number of respondents assessed it at the level of 8 points, and the absolute majority of them assessed it at least at the level of 6. Among all the elements assessed, it was the operations of fire fighters that were evaluated as best. What was assessed as definitely the worst was the functioning of health care and of non-governmental organizations. What came as a sort of surprise are relatively poor (given the allegiance to tradition exhibited by Polish society) scores given to the influence of the Church on the sense of local communality, with a relatively frequent scores falling in 1-4 range. The research method thus put forward by the authors is innovative since it offers a combination of so-called hard elements of security elements with barely measurable sense of security, as assessed by particular persons. A relatively large research sample ensures that the results are significantly informative.
The article is devoted to the problems of formation and development of sectoral corporate clusters and the infrastructure security of their formation and development in the system of the national economy. The role of the innovation infrastructure in the development of the national economy was determined, and a model was proposed for transferring the innovative product from the developer to the real economy. The main components of the production and infrastructure security of business entities when deploying an innovative business development model were outlined.
In the scientific work, the factors of perception of management styles have been studied in order to ensure the security of functioning of the enterprise in the context of the transformation of the social system when implementing strategies aimed at its development. The paradigm of decision making on interference in functional processes has been studied for ensuring the security and organizational sustainability of the enterprise. The main components of the formation of corporate models of sustainability and security of enterprise development have been considered and classified.
The individual principles of the cyclical course of economic processes in modern economic conditions were considered. The existing theories of economic (business) cycles were analyzed. The financial economy was defined as a component of the security of financial flows. The factors of strengthening (weakening) of the interaction of financial flows in the economy and their safe movement support were characterized. The effect of multiplication of financial flows for individual stages of the economic cycle was disclosed. The specifics of complex security of the movement of financial flows in industrial and financial economies were studied. A comparative characteristic of industrial and financial economies was carried out according to a number of criteria.
The key components in economic security system of the enterprise, which have the greatest influence of factors in external and internal environment are defined. The structuring of strategic economic security of an enterprise as an object of management was done. The structural model of providing comprehensive strategic economic security was proposed. The introduced structural model solves the issue of conceptualization of the economic security architecture and is a unitary system. In providing strategic economic safety of the enterprise it is offered to allocate the presence of an object that is at risk, and the presence of factors that have a threatening effect on the safety of the object as its constituents.
This scientific paper considers the essence of investment, financial and operational activity of the enterprise in the context of provision of a high level of its economic security, and describes the importance of investment support for the economic activity of the enterprise and the place of investments for the factor of economic security. The method of estimation of investment, financial and operational risks based on matrix and expert approaches was offered. The modelling of the systemic risk impact on the economic security of the enterprise was performed and recommendations on the neutralization of the influence of risks were developed.
It is argued that the assessment of the security level of the bank lending activities should be made taking into account the socio-economic interests of all participants in the credit process. The developed methodology of the score assessment of the security level of credit operations of the bank includes not only an analysis of the security status of the credit operations of a particular bank, but also an assessment of the external conditions of its implementation. The process of assessment of the security level of the bank credit operations is implemented in five stages: the development of a system of security indicators for the bank credit operations; formation of the information base, which consists of bank reporting (financial and managerial) and macroeconomic indicators; analysis of security indicators; preparation of the report on the state of security; advising on adjustment of the bank’s policy to enhance security of credit operations and prevent the effects of possible threats. The introduction of a methodology for scoring in the practical activities of banks will allow to obtain objective characteristics of the security of credit operations, identify weaknesses, strengthen security measures, improve the bank’s credit policy to prevent the effects of possible threats.