The research includes a multidimensional comparative analysis of electricity prices in 28 European countries for non-household consumers. The highest energy prices in the first half of 2022 were also ranked in the respective analyzed countries. Increases in electricity prices for non-household consumers were examined in terms of percentage and value from the second half of 2019 to the first half of 2022 and the increases were ranked. Their leader in terms of percentage and value was Greece with the result of 353,50% which constitutes EUR 0,288 of the price increase per 1 KWh in the considered time period. A multiple regression model was also built and showed that the time series of natural gas price quotations had an impact on the increase in electricity prices for non-household consumers.
The study comprises a multidimensional comparative analysis of the number of passengers transported by rail in twelve European countries between 2019-2021; the considered data were grouped and analyzed. The dynamics indices with a constant base were used in the study. The aim of the article was a comparative analysis of the number of passengers transported by rail in the European countries under consideration between 2019-2021. The result of the research is the observation of an increase in the number of passengers transported by rail in twelve European countries in 2021 compared to 2020 by 374 965 people. It was visible in nine out of the twelve countries considered. The largest one was observed in France, with around 170 544 passengers. Considering the percentage increase between 2020 and 2021 in respective countries in rail passenger transport, it was observed that the most significant increase was in Italy, which amounted to 25,61%.
The study presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of two dependent variables: the number of passengers transported by air in 28 European countries and the price of one barrel of crude oil in dollars. The conducted analysis shows that in the historical data concerning the identical periods (months) in both tested series, dependencies can be found. This allowed for the construction of a zero-one multiple regression model in order to confirm the impact of the number of passengers travelling by air on the price of one barrel of crude oil and describe this phenomenon with an analytical function.
The multidimensional comparative analysis and the forecasting of minimum salaries in 21 European countries were conducted in the study. The research began with the ranking of the data, the amount of salary rates taken as a basis, the rise expressed in euro and the values of dynamics indices on a constant base. Then the data was aggregated. The time series of the lowest salaries in 21 European countries was analyzed and evaluated. Thus, regularities were observed that were used to select the Holt-Winters’ exponential smoothing method for the forecasting of these salaries. The obtained forecasts were analyzed and evaluated with the use of indices, such as forecasting errors.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the impact of crude oil and liquefied petroleum gasses (LPG) prices on the housing price index in 28 European countries. Research shows that the COVID-19 pandemic and the attack of Russia on Ukraine have led to similar large fluctuations in crude oil and LPG prices. This, in turn, contributed to an increase in inflation and house price indices in the 28 analyzed European countries. Such an increase was driven by higher total construction costs, including higher prices for materials, energy and charges for building services. Housing prices in respective European countries vary. The study examines the dynamics of their changes and compares them with the use of ranking.
The study includes an analysis of the functioning of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of financial security management of these entities. The article covers the identification of threats in the area of finances of the discussed enterprises that arose during the pandemic, as well as the assessment and approach to financial risk management in these entities. As a result, the key categories of threats to the financial security of enterprises, arising during the COVID-19 pandemic, were presented, as well as the assessment of the effectiveness of state services responsible for ensuring financial security. The study focuses on multidimensional data analysis in terms of their grouping and unraveling in terms of comparing the considered variables in terms of dynamics. Initial studies were performed by comparing several variables, and the data were analyzed not only during the COVID-19 pandemic, but also in the pre-pandemic period in terms of observing their fluctuations in dynamic terms, and the relationships between them were also examined.
Forecasting of monetary policy tools, including reserve money of the Central Bank of Poland, in order to optimise economic decisions made by business entities operating on this market, becomes a basic canon of knowledge, in order to minimise a risk of undertaken economic operations – is currently the area of our investigation. The article raises a problem of forecasting the reserve money of the Central Bank of Poland on the basis of initial information received from the National Bank of Poland. The studies started with analysis and evaluation of time series of reserve money of the Central Bank in Poland. Then the analysed series were divided into two parts. Based on obtained results, the researchers performed forecasting of the first part of separated time series of reserve money of the Central Bank in Poland with the use of different methods. The above mentioned time series consists of 132 elements. Later on, the researches chose the best forecasting method and that was the basis for initial time series forecasting of reserve money of the Central Bank in Poland in mil PLN in retrospective terms during 2010-2021 for the next 2021-2022 years.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the exchange rates of five currencies: dollar, euro, franc, pound and ruble in zlotys and crude oil in dollars per barrel from 2005 to 2022. The research was conducted in terms of the identification of contemporary challenges for the economic security of enterprises in Poland. Grouping was used as part of multidimensional comparative analyzes. In the categorized line charts, in order to observe the trends in dynamic terms as a decrease and an increase in the rates of the analyzed data, a separate Y-axis scale was assigned to each of the analyzed dependent variables.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of apartment prices in seventeen cities in Poland from the first quarter of 2017 to the first quarter of 2021 in terms of the maintenance of economic security. Prices were analyzed in two aspects: value and dynamics of changes, referring to the first period under consideration in spatial terms (in each of the seventeen cities). The research used multidimensional comparative analyzes, such as: Chernoff faces and normalization with the use of stimulants. This, in turn, made it possible to examine the similarities and differences in the prices of 1 m2 of residential real estate in respective cities in Poland in a dynamic approach.
Economic security of any state is multifaceted. Affordability of basics, required for living serves are precondition for economic security of any state. The study presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of apartment sales in respective voivodships in Poland. The following dependent variables concerning apartments in sixteen voivodships were analyzed: price per \( m^2 \), number of sales and its value. The dynamics indices on a constant basis and the normalization for stimulants were used for the analyzes. The results of the research were compiled on categorized bar charts, conducting the ranking, as well as indicating and outlining the level of deviation of the analyzed data adopted by the author. The conducted research clearly showed how much of an impact on the state’s economy, with particular emphasis on the subject of research presented in the article, which is the apartment trade market, has a random incident, such as a pandemic, and how difficult it is to return to the conditions before Covid-19.