By fulfilling their tasks, employees of isolation institutions contribute to the subjective sense of security of citizens. At the same time, the staff of these institutions and their dependents become a security entity which, due to the dynamically changing sense of danger on the part of prisoners, requires active prevention of factors threatening the correct execution of the penalty of imprisonment (aggression against officers, violence against inmates, self-aggression, suicidal behaviors, etc.). In fact, by undertaking a number of preventive measures, staff undoubtedly manages security in penitentiary facilities. It is also important to use appropriate protective infrastructure depending on the type and type of prison. It is worth paying attention to the situation of Polish prisons. Political changes in Poland after 1989 also caused transformations in the prison system. A characteristic feature of these changes is the normalization of relations between prison staff and prisoners. Amendments to criminal legislation, including penitentiary, have adapted the legal situation in prisons to international standards. In theory and practice, attention is paid to a more subjective treatment of persons deprived of their liberty and greater protection of their rights and freedoms.
At the heart of any banking system, there is the provision of payments. Payments can be made via fiat or crypto currencies, bank credit or deposits, or fund transfers on the books of non-bank payment providers. When using payment systems, security and protection of people and property are extremely important, especially in relation to cyberterrorism. The purpose of cybercrime is to gain material benefit using IT systems, while its targets can be both business and political actors. The focus of this article is on a profound analysis of extracted factors which would be necessary for achieving a comprehensive understanding and depiction of users’ behaviours and risks in the field of security of payment instruments as well as technologies aimed at improving intermediated retail payment transactions.