The study includes an analysis of the functioning of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of financial security management of these entities. The article covers the identification of threats in the area of finances of the discussed enterprises that arose during the pandemic, as well as the assessment and approach to financial risk management in these entities. As a result, the key categories of threats to the financial security of enterprises, arising during the COVID-19 pandemic, were presented, as well as the assessment of the effectiveness of state services responsible for ensuring financial security. The study focuses on multidimensional data analysis in terms of their grouping and unraveling in terms of comparing the considered variables in terms of dynamics. Initial studies were performed by comparing several variables, and the data were analyzed not only during the COVID-19 pandemic, but also in the pre-pandemic period in terms of observing their fluctuations in dynamic terms, and the relationships between them were also examined.
Forecasting of monetary policy tools, including reserve money of the Central Bank of Poland, in order to optimise economic decisions made by business entities operating on this market, becomes a basic canon of knowledge, in order to minimise a risk of undertaken economic operations – is currently the area of our investigation. The article raises a problem of forecasting the reserve money of the Central Bank of Poland on the basis of initial information received from the National Bank of Poland. The studies started with analysis and evaluation of time series of reserve money of the Central Bank in Poland. Then the analysed series were divided into two parts. Based on obtained results, the researchers performed forecasting of the first part of separated time series of reserve money of the Central Bank in Poland with the use of different methods. The above mentioned time series consists of 132 elements. Later on, the researches chose the best forecasting method and that was the basis for initial time series forecasting of reserve money of the Central Bank in Poland in mil PLN in retrospective terms during 2010-2021 for the next 2021-2022 years.
The article indicates the threats of crime on the Internet and the specificity of criminals’ activities. Moreover, the content of the work shows how dynamically crime is changing on the Internet and it may affect all users. Nevertheless, the youngest are the most vulnerable to the actions of criminals because they can easily trust a perpetrator, who wants to commit a crime against a minor. Today, we all use different websites more frequently because the current pandemic situation in the world shows that both study, play and work only takes place in the virtual world (Hofmolk 2009).Online crime is now very dynamic and dangerous due to the high number of victims that were affected this type of online crime. Each of us could fall victim to hackers more than once in the network, however, we managed to react and prevent entry into our devices and data theft. The most dangerous thing is that the perpetrators are often anonymous because finding these people is almost impossible due to their skills in this area. The police have many mechanisms to combat this phenomenon, however, in many cases it is impossible to confirm who was the perpetrator of the incident online. Identification in the network is very difficult to detect because the perpetrators do not leave behind any signs such as: fingerprints, image or voice. The aim of the article was to indicate new forms of crime on the Internet and to show the broad spectrum of activities of offenders on the Internet. It was also indicated how big is the dynamics of crime and the emergence of newer and newer forms of online activity.
By fulfilling their tasks, employees of isolation institutions contribute to the subjective sense of security of citizens. At the same time, the staff of these institutions and their dependents become a security entity which, due to the dynamically changing sense of danger on the part of prisoners, requires active prevention of factors threatening the correct execution of the penalty of imprisonment (aggression against officers, violence against inmates, self-aggression, suicidal behaviors, etc.). In fact, by undertaking a number of preventive measures, staff undoubtedly manages security in penitentiary facilities. It is also important to use appropriate protective infrastructure depending on the type and type of prison. It is worth paying attention to the situation of Polish prisons. Political changes in Poland after 1989 also caused transformations in the prison system. A characteristic feature of these changes is the normalization of relations between prison staff and prisoners. Amendments to criminal legislation, including penitentiary, have adapted the legal situation in prisons to international standards. In theory and practice, attention is paid to a more subjective treatment of persons deprived of their liberty and greater protection of their rights and freedoms.