This study advocates for the central quality of the language tests and their validity and aims to investigate the content validity of the use of the English part of the achievement tests administered to the first- and second-year students of General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania. The tests were given in the form of the final examination of the English language course in order to find out if the papers’ content corresponded to the descriptors of the European language levels specified in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and the Europass on which the course syllabus was based. Seeking to examine the content validity, the study analyses the papers in terms of the task types and linguistic – grammatical and lexical – knowledge tested. The analyses of the papers revealed that although both open and semi-open tasks and closed tasks were present in the papers and specifications, the former were dominating for being more effective. Some of the papers lacked certain grammatical and lexical aspects to be tested which were mentioned in the specifications, such as pronouns, relative clauses, conditional clauses, modals, derivatives and collocations. The syntactic competence was tested in all the papers. As a result, the content validity of these papers can be partially supported, though in a general view, it can be inferred that the papers had the content validity, i.e. they measured what is supposed to be measured. Therefore, these findings suggest that the content of the achievement tests might be revised and may contribute to further research of validity in language testing.
The principal objective of the current study is to explore the link between knowledge sharing transformational leadership style, team performance, and mutual trust. In addition to that moderating role of mutual trust is also examined. The study has broached the argument that knowledge sharing and transformational leadership style improves team performance. Findings of the current study suggest creativity is a process that starts in the team through the sharing of knowledge. The currents study is also of the view that the that the process of creativity starts in the situation when the team members share knowledge through coordination and it is also argued that the much of the knowledge is shared when team members meet to share knowledge in a given area, much of which is tacit. Sharing such tacit knowledge creates a flow of novel ideas that contribute to successful outcomes, such as new products, processes and patents. The findings of the study have shown agreement with the proposed or hypothesize results. The study has used PLS-SEM to analyses the data. The study will be helpful for policy makers in the researcher in understanding the issues related to supply chain, its integration, flexibility, and internal performance.
Scientific researches were carried out when deepening into the problems connected with the fields of human resources and their formation, possibilities and activity perspectives. The aim of these researches was to clear out management presumptions of human resources formation influencing regularity and entrepreneurship orientated towards up-to-date problems as well as to present their formation possibilities. In the article the object of the research was analysed at both general and organizational levels. Following the results of the carried out researches, management presumptions of human resources formations were grounded, the characteristic of the competences of the alternation, as one of the processes in the processes of the development and progress of system elements, was presented in the article. The systematic approach towards entrepreneurship as well as towards the groups of factors influencing it (from the management viewpoint) was emphasized in the article. The further directions of the researches of human resources formation were directed in the article.
The articles analyses the penetration of social media through personal use into daily life and the relation of this phenomenon to national security. A survey of Lithuanian higher-school students aged 18-29 was conducted according to quantitative research methodology. Young people actively use social networks for various purposes (personal, learning, work, recreation). Statistically, each individual, aged 18-29, has personal profiles on four social networking sites, yet most often does not adequately evaluate and link the use of social networks with possible national security threats and risk factors. Less than two-thirds of young people have heard something of possible threats and risk factors; however, the impact of social media on national security is not considered significant. Thus, it seems that young people lack information about real threats presented by social networks to both personal data storage and national security.
The internationalization practice of private public cooperation has been intensively studied since the 1960s. Due to increase in public capital flows, direct investments and competition in private services at that time active development of public and private cooperation has begun. This publication emphasizes the importance of a military training system quality and ways how to gain the better performance for the sustainable improvement. However diminishing long term allocations for training suppose new perception for different kind of qualification anticipated in the National Defense System (NDS). There are several good experience countries in the world which changed their army training system qualification assessments and purchased training service from private companies. Market research data showed that public-private partnership in military training is a new kind of military sustainable support possibility. There was a novel model laid in this paper for better military training system and private partnership evaluation.