The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the exchange rates of five currencies: dollar, euro, franc, pound and ruble in zlotys and crude oil in dollars per barrel from 2005 to 2022. The research was conducted in terms of the identification of contemporary challenges for the economic security of enterprises in Poland. Grouping was used as part of multidimensional comparative analyzes. In the categorized line charts, in order to observe the trends in dynamic terms as a decrease and an increase in the rates of the analyzed data, a separate Y-axis scale was assigned to each of the analyzed dependent variables.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of apartment prices in seventeen cities in Poland from the first quarter of 2017 to the first quarter of 2021 in terms of the maintenance of economic security. Prices were analyzed in two aspects: value and dynamics of changes, referring to the first period under consideration in spatial terms (in each of the seventeen cities). The research used multidimensional comparative analyzes, such as: Chernoff faces and normalization with the use of stimulants. This, in turn, made it possible to examine the similarities and differences in the prices of 1 m2 of residential real estate in respective cities in Poland in a dynamic approach.
The study focuses on the generalization of the methodology of transport planning with the use of the LOGFAS IT system. The main activities that must be performed in order to plan the transport correctly in the IT software were presented. This process requires a lot of experience and work in many program modules and the implementation of a lot of different information without which planning is impossible.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the number of employees in the enterprise sector in Poland on a quarterly basis between 2010-2021 and new and withdrawn jobs dynamically in terms of economic security. The volume of employment and salary for work in Poland in the enterprise sector by type of activity was analyzed. The last stage of the research was the analysis and evaluation of the time series of salaries in Poland and its forecasting for the future.
The article aims to present financial analysis in determining the possibilities of human capital development, i.e., increase in the value of an enterprise through development of human capital. The market value of an enterprise is to a large extent dependent on its intellectual capital, including human capital. It may be said that human capital constitutes a ground for an enterprise’s development through work, creativity in operation, adjustment to a fast-evolving environment. Emphasizing the importance of the above content, as “hidden” assets of the enterprise, human capital is not fully included in the company’s financial reporting. Despite the often enormous intangible contribution into preparation, use of complex methods for selecting the right employees, implementation of an incentive system, performance evaluation and staff development, organizational procedures that absorb a series of activities to ensure growth of the company’s value and which should be included in its financial statements, are underestimated.
Globalization as a modern process is accelerating in the whole world, and this process contributes to both -progress and various negative phenomena in society. One of these negative phenomena is transnational criminality, which is increasingly impacting also Latvia. For that reason, this problem is investigated in this paper, in order to understand how the Latvian state may take advantage of the potential of globalization to reduce the consequences of this globalization, which become apparent in the form of transnational criminality. This paper analyses a number of concepts related to the research area, such as „globalization”, „transnational crime/ criminality” and others. The discussion about the impact of globalization on immigration and how it affects the transnational criminality is also one of the issues of his paper. The purpose of this paper is also to investigate the impact of globalization on drug-related crimes, as well as the issues of prevention of these crimes in relation to the Republic of Latvia under the influence of modern globalization. The paper explores the potential for international cooperation in the fight against transnational criminality, as well as deals with ways of further improvement of this transnational cooperation to make it more effective in reducing of transnational criminality. The above mentioned paper could serve as a theoretical insight into various problems, which the law enforcement bodies have in practice, when they have to deal with different aspects of transnational criminality. This paper also explores the problems that may arise when the officers of these institutions have to cooperate internationally in detecting transnational organized crimes and, thereby, to learn from this cooperation, so that this international cooperation between the law enforcement institutions of Latvia and other countries will ensure more better results in the future.
The article presents theoretical generalization and provides the substantiated solution of scientific and practical problem regarding the development of theoretical and methodological framework for the assurance of energy security of a country. The authors carried out a detailed analysis and specified the leading trends in the world energy market and obtaining resources, researched the distribution of countries in the issue of energy production and consumption, which is fundamental for energy security of a country. They also fostered scientific theories realting to the economic policy of energy sector in the global context, introduced the сriteria for assessing energy security of a country. One developed the structure and content of the energy risk management system, which makes it possible to identify and assess the probability of risk occurrence. Matrix for the assessment of energy security risks has been formed. One developed the energy efficiency improvement scheme based on the use of renewables in economy in order to reduce energy consumption and ensure the harmonious development of energy conservation system. The scheme helps to form power management systems, extend the authority of national institutions in matters of energy efficiency and conservation in order to improve energy efficiency of the economy and to reduce energy costs.
National competitiveness is a multisided concept that includes a system of indexes, indicators, criteria, conditions and factors of development, mechanisms of its improvement. Competitiveness consists of a number of components that supplement each other and ensure steady economic growth, improving the welfare of the population. These are: science and education, innovation and investments, various infrastructure, real economy sector, small business, various services, natural and human resources. The objective of necessity to perform reforms at the regional level and the natural increase of the role of the regions in reforming the economy are predetermined by the fact that the ability of state bodies, ministries and departments to influence the course of reforms is gradually limited, and the new market mechanism is not working enough effectively yet. This shows the necessity of determination of the role and place of the region in the economic space, its potential possibilities and development prospects.
The concepts of security and weapons are closely related, which equally applies to both public security and national security. In order to ensure their national security, countries are trying to purchase the most effective weapons. In order to achieve the necessary level of public security, the country arms law enforcement personnel. Such armament is legitimate and contributes to the strengthening of general security. At the same time, the purchase of weapons by the population for individual security purposes is not so unambiguous. On the one hand, law-abiding citizens have the right to protect their lives and health from criminal threats. On the other hand, a free turnover of a large number of weapons increases their accessibility and the possibility of getting hold by individuals who are able to use them for criminal purposes. The question arises: which weapons can be available to the population and which not. After all, weapons can be different. A special position in the category of weapons is occupied by cold weapons, the criminal liability for the possession of which is provided for in some countries. Moreover, the question of what should be considered a cold weapon is sufficiently disputable. All these issues are to be studied in the framework of this article.
This paper has aimed to consider how government expenditure contributes to economic growth by focusing on both the level and composition of government spending, in connection to the dynamics of GDP per capita growth. The investigation covers the period from 1997 to 2017. The authors have applied total expenditure approach analyzing interrelationships between government expenditure and economic growth and division approach examining and comparing the distributions of government expenditure in the selected European Union countries. The authors have applied descriptive statistics, the Pearson’s correlation, intensity rate of structural changes and Finger-Kreinin indicator. The findings have suggested the following: 1) there is no evidence on the relationship between general government expenditure and economic development in the European Union countries; 2) the countries with a greater proportion of productive spending, such as Cyprus, Greece, Lithuania, Hungary, Estonia, Slovakia have a low GDP per capita indicator. Economically strong countries, such as Denmark, France and Sweden have relatively low level of productive expenditure; 3) economically stronger countries have more stable compositions of government expenditure than economically weaker ones; 4) the countries with a similar real GDP per capita have been characterized by more similar government spending structures. As the economic gap between countries grows, divergence in allocation of government spending increases. The findings of this research could provide important guideline for the managing of government expenditure in the European Union countries. Moreover, it can serve as a guideline to a public budget management in the countries under consideration.